Jo's Radio Collection


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Table of contents
 Chapter 1  Radio collection

1.1 Philips radios
   1.2 Philips power supply units and rectifiers
   1.3 Erres radios
   1.4 Fridor Waldorp radios
   1.5 Belgian radios
   1.6 German radios
   1.7 Home made radios
   1.8 Philips Tape Recorders
   1.9 Philips Television
 Chapter 2  Renovation hints for radios
   2.1 General
   2.2 Components
         2.2.1 Electron Tubes
         2.2.2 Resistors
         2.2.3 Capacitors
         2.2.4 Variable tuning capacitors
         2.2.5 Coils
         2.2.6 Rotary switches
         2.2.7 Oscillator frequency
 Chapter 3  The evolution of the radio tube
  3.1 Introduction
  3.2 The electromagnetic spectrum
  3.3 The very first radio tube
  3.4 The first Dutch radio tube
  3.5 The operation of the electron tube
        3.5.1 Introduction
        3.5.2 The diode
        3.5.3 The triode
        3.5.4 The tetrode
        3.5.5 The penthode
  3.6 The invention and evolution of the transistor
        3.6.1 Semi-conducting in germanium en silicon
        3.6.2 n and p germanium
        3.6.3 The p-n junction
        3.6.4 The transistor
  3.7 Hybrid circuits
  3.8 Integrated circuits (IC's)
        3.8.1 IC Technology
        3.8.2 IC Process description
       Substrate fabrication process
       Epitaxial growth process
       Isolation diffusion
       Base diffusion
       Emitter diffusion
       Aluminum metalization
  3.9 Field-effect transistors
        3.9.1 The JFET
        Fabrication of the  JFET
        3.9.2 The MOSFET
        The n-channel enhancement MOSFET
        Fabrication of the n-channel
                             enhancement MOSFET

        3.9.3 The complementary MOSFET
        The fabrication of a CMOS inverter
  3.10 The future of the chip
 Chapter 4   Development of electronic components and their


First of all, let me introduce myself. I am Jo Bleijlevens and live in the most southern part of Holland. My passion for old radios is obvious if you consider my electro-technical education that is primarily focused on electronics. Apart from that I have also good knowledge of fine mechanical engineering.
As a little boy of 6 years old, I demolished just everything that was dumped in the wastebasket in order to satisfy my curiosity how the "thing" operated and how it had been assembled. Even when I was at an elderly age, I completely demolished a very old Philips radio model 2531 and loudspeaker model 2019. I loved that red horseshoe shaped magnet that was inside the loudspeaker. It was really attractive.
In this mode of operation, quite some old radios and television sets have met my sledgehammer.
It has been a strange experience that, at a more mature age, I became remorseful with respect to this nostalgic demolishing behavior. The trigger for this remorse occurred when I saw on the Internet various pictures of old radios that did look very familiar to me.
From that moment on I furiously started collecting old radios because I would like to see the vintage glowing of the electron tubes again and to hear that nostalgic sound from the loudspeaker. In 2006, I became a member of the NVHR which is the Dutch Society for the History of the Radio inaugurated in 1977. That membership gave me the opportunity to visit exhibitions where you can exchange and/or buy radios and all kind of spare parts for radios.
At this moment my radio collection merely consist of Philips radios that have been thoroughly renovated in the course of the past years.
This renovation project resulted in an acceptable quality of sound of all radios. For achieving the success of this renovation project, I have to thank Jan Post from Australia and Ben Dijkman and Corrien Maas from Holland who all delivered the required components to make this radio collection a complete one. Corrien Maas delivered the beautiful  hand-woven radio fabric that gives each radio its own particular appearance.  I also have to express my thanks and gratitude to my old Medtronic colleague Volkert Zeijlemaker who donated a so called home build Schaaper radio.
On a morning, he saw this particular radio laying on his neighbor's sidewalk. Obviously, the radio was intended to be collected by the garbage men later that day.
He rapidly took it away and asked me whether I was interested in it.  My obvious response was yes and I said that I had certainly interest in that piece of junk. I took it home with the intention to demolish it again for having some spare parts at hand. However, before doing so, I desperately wanted to know what the device really was meant to be since I had a slight hunch that it was not just a simple home built hobby wireless receiver.
As I said earlier, I became a member of the NVHR and as a member of the club you communicate a lot with your fellow NVHR members.
So, one time I sent an e-mail to NVHR member Wim Stuiver to ask him where I could get an FM tuner for a Philips radio model BX410A. In the same e-mail I asked him whether he happened to have some information about the radio shown on the attached picture in the e-mail.
He told me in a reply e-mail that I happened to be the lucky owner of a so-called Erik Schaaper radio that was a home built radio dated from back in 1931-1934. In that time frame Erik Schaaper had a small factory in Utrecht where he designed and manufactured parts for home build radio sets. One had to buy all the single components and the schematic in order to assemble the wireless receiver at home.

To complete this introduction, just a small summary of what will be discussed in the following chapters. In the first chapter, I will give a summary of my radio collection followed by a chapter on useful hints that may help you in the renovation of old radios in order to regain that nostalgic sound again out of the device.
In the third chapter I will try to present an historical overview of how the very first electron tube evolved into the today well- known integrated circuit chip that contains millions of single transistors which are actually the successors of the vintage electron tubes.
The fourth chapter depicts the development of electronic components and their packaging
throughout the years.

Chapter 1    Radio collection

1.1  Philips Radios     Click on the pictures to show them enlarged in a new window



              2531 with loudspeaker model 2019 

                       Manufactured in 1932

                  Tubes: E442, E424, C443, 506

           2019 Speaker           2115 Speaker





                   836A    Manufactured in 1934

           Tubes: E455, E462, E499, E443H, 1823

                      V6A    Manufactured in 1937

                  Tubes: AK2, AF3, ABC1, AL4, AZ1




                    890A    Manufactured in 1937

 Tubes AF3, AK2, ABC1, ABC1, AL4, AL4, AM1, 
             AZ1, 1823





                    890A Station-scale

         890A Tuning indicator  (Magic eye)




                          650A    Manufactured in 1938

             Tubes: EK2, EF8, EF9, EBL1, EM1, AZ1





                      905X   Manufactured in 1940

          Tubes: EF8, ECH3, EF9, EFM1, EBL1, AZ1

                   BX462A   Manufactured in 1946

             Tubes: ECH21, ECH21, EBL21, AZ1





                    BX360A   Manufactured in 1947

                    Tubes: ECH4, ECH4, EBL1, AZ1

                            681X  Manufactured in 1947

         Tubes: ECH4, EF9, EBF2, EF9, EL3, EM4, AZ1





                      BX380A    Manufactured in 1948

                Tubes: ECH21, ECH21, EBL21, AZ1







                      BX373A    Manufactured in 1948

                    Tubes: ECH21, ECH21, EBL21, AZ1

                     BX490A   Manufactured in 1949

      Tubes: ECH21, EAF42,EAF42, EBL21, EM34, AZ1





                       BX400A   Manufactured in 1950

           Tubes: ECH42, EAF42, EBC41, EL41, AZ41

                         BX210U   Manufactured in 1951

            Tubes: UCH42, UF41, UBC41, UL41, UY41





             BX410A    Manufactured in 1951

    Tubes: ECH42, EAF42, EBC41, EL41, AZ41, EM34

                   BX533A    Manufactured in 1954

 Tubes: EC92, EC92, EF85, ECH81, EF41, EABC80, 

             EL84, EZ80, EM34





                       B5X63A    Manufactured in 1956

        Tubes: ECC85, ECH81, EF89, EF85, EABC80

                    EL84, EL86, EZ80, EM80

                     B5X72A   Manufactured in 1957

   Tubes: ECC85,ECH81,EF89,EF85,EABC80,EL84,EL86,






                     B2D03A    Manufactured in 1960

          Tubes: ECC85, ECH81, EF89, EABC80, EL95

                     B0X15U   Manufactured in 1961

               Tubes: UCH81, UBF80, UCL82, UY89





                     B5X14A    Manufactured in 1961

      Tubes: ECC83, EAA91, ECC85, ECH81, EF89,

                     EBF89, EL84, EL84, EZ81, EM80 

                         B5X82A   Manufactured in 1958

               Tubes: ECC85, ECH81, EF89, EF85,

                            EABC80, EL84, EL86, EZ80, EM84 




  1.2 Philips power supply units and rectifiers



                      Rectifier model 1017  

                     Manufactured in 1929

               Tube:  Mercury rectifier 1018

                   Power supply model 372  
                      Manufactured in 1925

                        Tube: Rectifier 373



                      Power supply model 3002  

                          Manufactured in 1928

                           Tube: Rectifier 1805



            Rectifier model 327   Manufactured in 1925

                   Tubes: Mercury rectifier 328 and
                      stabilization resistor tube 329




  1.3 Erres Radios




                       KY509    Manufactured in 1950

     Tubes: ECH42, EF41, EBC41, ECC40, EL41, EL41,

                 EM34, AZ41, AZ41, 

                       KY537    Manufactured in 1953

 Tubes: ECH81, EF85, EABC80, EC92, EL84, EM34, EZ80




  1.4 Fridor Waldorp Radios



                   Waldorp 502   Manufactured in 1949

                    Tubes: ECH21, ECH21, EBL21, AZ1




1.5     Belgian Radios


                 350A  from SBR   Manufactured in 1939

                        Tubes: ECH3, EF9, EBL1, AZ1


1.6     German Radios



      Graetz Canzonetta 515    Manufactured in 1957

          Tubes: ECH81, EF89, EABC80, EM80, EL84

          Nordmende Stradella    Manufactured in 1963

 Transistors: AF106, OC615, AF105, AF105, AF105,     
                    AC162, AC162, AC152, AC152


1.7     Homemade Radios


                    Schaaper radio manufactured in 1931

  RF tube:                 E452T

  Detector tube:        E446

  LF Amplifier tube:  E443H

  Rectifier tube:        1823

           Schaaper single knob tuning-unit


1.8    Philips Tape Recorders

                                                                EL 3516    Manufactured in 1958

                                                         Tubes: EF86, ECC83, ECL82, EM81, EZ80




                                                                EL 3541    Manufactured in 1961

                                                         Tubes: EF86, ECC83, ECL82, EM84, EZ80





                       EL 3514    Manufactured in 1962

                          Tubes: ECC83, DM71, EL95






1.9    Philips Television

                                                                TX500U    Manufactured in 1951

   Tubes: MW31-74, 2xPY80, 9xEF80, EQ80, EL42, EB91, PL83, 3xECL80, PL83, PY80, EY51

   Note: The picture on the right shows the TX500U in operation !




Chapter 2    Renovation hints for radios

2.1    General
These renovation hints are primarily intended for the technical part of the radio. It is assumed that the housing and the chassis have been thoroughly cleaned and not damaged.
In case the housing has been severely scratched it can be renovated by using the French polishing method. French polish is frequently used as the only finish on wooden housings or cabinets because it can be completely controlled and made to sit on top of the wood rather than to soak into the wood which would change the resonance of the wood molecules. However, keep in mind that this process is very time consuming and needs quite some patience.
For those who do not have that patience, you can use a much faster method by using high polish floor varnish that also yields an excellent result.
To be successful, the housing must be grinded first using 180-grit sandpaper, then 220 grit, then 400 grit and finally 600 or even 1200 grit. After this grinding process the French polish or floor varnish can be applied.

As far as the chassis is concerned, the best way to clean this is by using benzene. I would not recommend the use of copper polish since it will affect the cadmium layer on the chassis and will leave a dirty shiny appearance on the surface of the chassis.

With respect to the station scale I can be very short: do never touch the backside of the scale!  Just wipe off the dust with a dry cotton cloth. However, the front side can be cleaned by using a mild detergent. Once again, never apply this to the backside of the scale. Unfortunately, I have experienced 2 blank station scales by employing this process. 
Fortunate enough I have been able to procure the original station scales again at "Marktplaats" on the Internet.

2.2   Components
2.2.1   Electron tubes
Electron tubes, or valves, can be tested with the aid of a tube tester. Tests should be performed on mutual conductance, gas in tube and electrode shorts. 
Usually, the emission has drastically decreased which results in a decrease of mutual conductance by even a factor of 2.
However, in most cases this will not result in a strong reduction of sound quality.
You often will see that the tube is completely dead with the exception that the filament still glows.
In most cases this is caused by a loose connection in the tube socket. To solve this problem, you can remove the socket from the glass tube by making a circular saw cut in the socket at a distance of 5 mm from the glass. Then longitudinal to the tube cut the small ring with a saw. Put a screwdriver in this newly created slit and break the socket off and remove the remainders of the socket. Be careful not to break the wires that extend through the glass.
Take a tube that is not used anymore and remove the glass. Do not damage the socket since you have to use it again on the tube to be repaired. For safety reasons, first make a small incision in the glass using a small diamond grinding tool to remove the vacuum in the tube. Remove the glass, the brownish adhesive and wires from the socket and make sure that the holes in the socket pins are open.
After having extended the wires, put the socket on the tube and solder the wires into the socket pins. To alleviate the mounting of the socket, the wires  are cut at a different length which will ease the assembly of the wires in the socket pin holes. To properly attach the socket to the glass, two components adhesive can be used.
When repairing shielded tubes, make sure that the wire connected in parallel to the cathode or is connected to an extra pin, is properly secured and connected to the shielding. 

2.2.2   Resistors
Certain types of resistors, especially these, do drift in time with respect to resistance value. Some of them might even be ruptured thus forming an open circuit. Particularly, drifted resistors that are used to provide the voltage bias for the electron tube should be replaced to improve the performance of the radio.

2.2.3  Capacitors
Usually, the electrolytic capacitors that are used to smooth the ripple on the rectified voltage have a high leakage current and should be replaced. To do so, open the capacitor by carefully bending back the swaged aluminum side of the capacitor and remove the inner material. Put a new capacitor inside the aluminum tube and close the capacitor.
Be sure that the polarity of the new capacitor is correctly connected to the terminals.
The well known black tar Philips capacitors will always show a drift in capacitance value and may have a high leakage current. As a matter of fact, I have measured leakage current values of a couple of milli-amps at a test voltage of 200V.
With respect to capacitors used for smoothing anode and screen grid supply voltage, a leakage current of 100-200 micro-amps at a test voltage of 200V is acceptable. 
For coupling capacitors, a leakage current greater than 10 micro-amps is not acceptable since it will heavily influence the bias of the next electron tube which is manifested in an increase in grid bias voltage.
In those cases where the black tar capacitors need to be replaced, operate as follows:
Take a pertinax tube having the same dimensions of the old tar capacitor and assemble a new capacitor having the correct capacitance and working voltage inside the pertinax tube (see picture)
On forehand, the connection wires of the capacitor have been replaced by wires that have the same diameter of the old capacitor. Today's capacitors are much smaller in size and hence have thinner connection wires.
At the left and right side of the pertinax tube, 2 lathe machined delrin rings are attached that have been tapered at an angle of 120 degrees (see picture). After painting the whole assembly with black satin paint the capacitor is ready for use and cannot be distinguished from the old black tar capacitor (see picture).

2.2.4  Variable tuning capacitors
Use a small soft brush to remove the dust from the tuning capacitor. Be careful not to bend the thin aluminum plates.
Although the thin aluminum plates look somewhat distorted and bended, be careful not to bend them.
I have experienced that at an old TV tuner. Apparently, all the plates were bended so I thought this could not have been the intention of the manufacturer. Hence, I decided to put the plates back in a lined up and straight position again.
After that time consuming exercise I have never seen a picture anymore on that TV set.

2.2.5  Coils
Measure the resistance of the coil and check whether the resistance is in accordance with the specification in the service documentation. Generally, coils do not need any specific attention because they often are protected by an aluminum tube and the trimming core has been secured against inadvertent adjustment.
So called honeycomb coils need to be made dust free only. Be careful not to break the thin connection wires.

2.2.6  Rotary switches
Check that all contacts operate correctly by looking at their elastic movement. If no movement is observed and ohmic resistance measurements indicate no contact, carefully adjust or bend the contact.
In case the rotary switch still makes intermittent contact, use contact cleaning spray. Remove superfluous cleaning fluid.

2.2.7  Oscillator frequency
In the event of a bad reception on one of the wavebands in the radio, for instance the medium wave, it is highly recommended to check the frequency of the oscillator.
The medium waveband has got a frequency range of 513 kHz to 1714 kHz.
Assuming that the intermediate frequency of the subject radio is 473 kHz, then the frequency of the oscillator should vary between 986 kHz and 2187 kHz. In case the measured frequency of the oscillator strongly deviates from these calculated values, the most probable cause is a drift or even a defect in one of the capacitors in the oscillator circuit that determines the oscillator frequency.

Chapter 3   The evolution of the radio tube
3.1 Introduction
We have to make a big step back in history to the era of the wireless telegraphy in order to understand and map the evolution of the radio tube.
In principle, the wireless telegraphy  is based on scientific experiments of Heinrich Hertz who demonstrated and proved in 1888 that electrical oscillator waves generated in objects, could also induce electrical waves in objects that were placed at a certain distance f the oscillating object.
Hertz demonstrated by means of his magnificent experiments that these so called electromagnetic waves propagated with a speed that was equal to the speed of light being 300000 km/sec.
Out of these very important experiments of Hertz, experiments which served the purpose of proving Maxwell's assumptions, the wireless telegraphy was born.

3.2  The electromagnetic spectrum
An electromagnetic wave in fact consists of two perpendicular waves that propagate in a vacuum atmosphere at a speed of 300000 km/sec. 
One component of the electromagnetic wave constitutes an electrical field while the other component of the electromagnetic wave constitutes a magnetic field.
One of the most well known forms of an electromagnetic wave is the visible light. It distinguishes from all other electromagnetic waves by its frequency. Amazingly, the visible light encompasses only a very small part of the total electromagnetic spectrum.
(Click here to visualize the total electromagnetic spectrum)

3.3 The very first radio tube
It has been the great merit of Marconi that he converted the invention of Hertz in such a way that it was suitable for practical use. He applied the necessary practical changes to the laboratory experiments of Hertz that eventually resulted in an improvement in transmission distance of up to 10 to 20 km at which distance he could exchange Morse code signals by means of electromagnetic waves.
During these experiments, he replaced Hertz's electrical resonator by a much more sensitive instrument called the coherer of professor Branley and so he achieved substantial favorable results.
The coherer of Branley consisted of an evacuated glass tube that was partly filled with metal particles loosely confined between two silver plugs containing connection wires. If this instrument is placed in an electric circuit employing a voltage source and a galvanometer, it will show a high resistance to the electrical current in normal condition.
However, if this device is subjected to electromagnetic waves, the high resistance will suddenly decrease and the galvanometer needle will noticeably deflect. Unfortunately, due to insufficient sensitivity as detector, the coherer has led a very short life.
In the following years, the detectors such as the Marconi detector and the electrolytic detector that were well known at that time, have been replaced by crystal detectors. It was discovered that crystals such as carborundum silicon and copper pyrite had the property of conducting electromagnetic waves only in one direction. In this way, the rectified high frequency currents could be made audible by means of a suppression capacitor and a headphone.
Ultimately, the crystal detector appeared to be very unreliable because of the fact that it required continuous adjustment and hardly contributed to amplification of the signal.
The great break through came when Lee de Forest started his experiments in 1906. These experiments resulted in the very first radio tube called Audion (audio-ion).
During these experiments, Lee de Forest found that, when gas in a low vacuum glass tube was heated by means of a filament inside the tube, the gas became conductive in only one direction. By winding a wire around the glass tube and applying a high frequency signal to this wire, the current flow in the glass tube could be adjusted. 
In his original design, a metal plate and a filament were melted into the glass tube. The metal plate was connected to the positive terminal of a 22 Volt battery via a headphone. 
The negative terminal of the battery was connected to one side of the filament. A high frequency signal connected to the wire that was wound around the glass tube, caused a fluctuating current in the headphone.
A rather logical subsequent development of the Audion resulted in a glass tube in which the wire that was formerly wound around the tube, had now been melted inside into the glass tube
Various scientists such as John Ambrose Fleming, Edwin Armstrong en Irving Langmuir have been involved in the improvement activities of the Audion.
The improvements were particularly aimed at removing the gas in the tube and thus improved the vacuum condition in the tube.
This was in contradiction as to what the patent of Lee de Forest described: "The gas in the tube is essential for the correct functioning of the tube".
In fact, the Audion was yet meant to function as detector while Langmuir's high vacuum tubes were supposed to function as amplifier and remained proper functionality at much higher frequencies.
Ironically, the Audions that had lost their demodulating properties due to the absorption of gas by the metal electrodes and thus were identified as defective, virtually changed into an amplifier but nobody did realize it at that very moment. 

3.4  The first Dutch radio tube
If we have to believe the words of Leonard Bal's son, we learn that his father was the inventor of the first radio tube in Holland. How could we otherwise explain the strange events that occurred during the first Dutch radio exhibition in 1918 at The Hague.
The visitors of the exhibition truly could receive Morse signals from radio receivers, however, exclusively via headphone and without amplifier.
However, all of a sudden, at exhibition stand number 33 occurs a tiny miracle. There is Leonard Bal, director of the Bal Electro technical Company from Breda, standing in his stand next to his self-made wireless receiver that contains the very first Dutch radio tube that enables amplification of ether signals. 
He is even capable of resounding the time signal from Paris through the exhibition hall. The competitors are speechless.
Where the big high tech shots like Philips did fail, a relative unknown outsider indeed succeeded in amplifying radio signals. Leonard Bal had to be world-famous now, unfortunately, it didn't go that way. 
The son of Leonard Bal continues his story: "Strange and odd events had happened in 1918. My father was envied his success.
At the end of the first day of the exhibition, he went back to his stand and stunningly discovered  that his radio tube was stolen. 
The next day he went back to his stand and saw with great astonishment that the radio tube was put back in the radio receiver. Subsequently, it is very strange that two months later, Hanso Idzerda, who is a radio technician and director of a radio factory, developed a radio tube that was identical to Bal's radio tube.
Moreover, Idzerda acquired the legal rights for a patent on this so-called IDEEZET tube that was put into production by Philips as the first Dutch radio tube.

However, rumors went on at that time that neither Idzerda nor Bal was the first Dutchman who produced a proper functioning radio tube. It was said that the truly very first tube was made by glass blower Hendrik Schmitz who was employed at the metal filament lamp factory Holland in Utrecht. The following case did occur: On November 15 in the year1917, a certain lieutenant Tolk and lieutenant commander at sea Dubois visited the Holland factory. They had a Telefunken radio tube with them that had been recovered from a German airplane that had crashed near Kampen.
The Dutch Ministry of War ordered the factory to produce a copy of the tube under strict secrecy. Four days later, on the 19th of November, glassblower Schmitz and laboratory worker Prinsen had finished a first functioning radio tube.
Early 1918, tube factory Holland had finished their own radio tube that was a predecessor of the radio tubes that, until 1923, had been used in radio receivers of the "Nederlandse Seintoestellen Fabriek NSF" in Hilversum. NSF stood at that time for Dutch Signaling apparatus Factory.
Then, also in the beginning of 1918, Idzerda got a hunch of the experiments that took place in Utrecht. He tried to order some radio tubes at the Holland factory. However, the Dutch military authorities did put a stop to it.
Yet in March 1918 at the radio exhibition in The Hague, Idzerda showed  an old-fashioned crystal receiver. There was also lieutenant Tolk who demonstrated a receiver that he had built using radio tubes that came from the secret Holland series.
The interior of the apparatus was officially state-secret and therefore it was hidden in a sealed cabinet.
Bals's receiver that stood somewhat further away, was not more than a wired circuit on a bare wooden board.
This frankness and openness did draw enormous attention. The radio tube that had ground glass to hide the interior of the tube was labeled as "Bal-Pope Venlo" while nobody knew that this factory in Venlo manufactured already radio tubes.
As was said earlier, strange things did occur at The Hague. Bals's radio tube disappeared on the first evening of the exhibition and next morning it was installed again in the radio as if nothing had happened. 
Bal did not give much rumor to the incident and kept it silent. On the contrary, the brutal theft of Tolk's box containing spare parts was front-page news.
Soon after that, Bal was confronted with overwhelming competitors. In Hilversum, the NSF started manufacturing wireless receivers containing Holland radio tubes and the Philips Company Archives show that there are papers present that give evidence that Idzerda received a radio tube from Philips that was manufactured in accordance to his specifications. 
On 1 July 1918, an agreement was signed in which Idzerda was obliged to buy a minimum of 180 "Ideezet" tubes per year.
Shortly thereafter production started.
Whether Idzerda had something to do with the mysterious events that did occur in the first night of the radio exhibition in 1918 is far beyond certainty. 
For in November 1917, Idzerda's later partner Philips had already been approached by lieutenant Tolk with the Telefunken valve from Kampen. Philips's technical staff was interested but Gerard Philips did not see any business in radio-work that he called "militaire spielerei". Not until Idzerda did guarantee purchase of goods, he also approved.
Unfortunately, we will never know the details and the truth about all this. What we know for sure is, that all this technological hassle has ultimately led in the late twenties and early thirties, to good quality wireless receivers in almost any household and stayed that way until mid fifties of the last century when the transistor radio was introduced.  
In modern electronics, vacuum tubes have been replaced on a large scale by the so-called "solid state devices" such as the transistor that was invented in 1947 and has been implemented in integrated circuits in 1959.
Nevertheless, vacuum tubes are still widely employed in high-end audio applications. Tube amplifiers produce a wonderfully warm tone that has not yet been successfully emulated through digital technology.

3.5  The operation of the electron tube
3.5.1 Introduction
Radio broadcasting that started to prosper since 1920 urged for mass-production of electron tubes.
The bright glowing tungsten cathode was very soon replaced by the soft glowing oxide cathode and the screen grid tube made its entry. Somewhat around the year 1935, the strive for size reduction of the radio tube did start which very soon thereafter resulted in the fact that the new tubes didn't have any resemblance anymore with the light bulb.
Due to the fact that the "radio lamps" are now tube shaped and their application has little to do anymore with radio, the name electron tube is more appropriate.

3.5.2  The Diode
The modern electron tube is high vacuum tube in which a current of free electrons can be established. To facilitate movement of free electrons, the inside of the tube should be evacuated.
The small amount of stray gas that might still be present in the tube is removed by means of a so-called getter that is mounted inside the tube. This getter is a small cup containing a bit of barium that reacts with oxygen strongly and absorbs it. When the tube is pumped out and sealed, the getter is heated by means of high frequency energy thus producing a getter flash which manifests itself as a silvery patch you see on the inside of the glass. This "mirror" absorbs the stray gas that is still present in the tube and is also capable of some gas absorption when the tube is normally used later on.
How does the electron current start inside the tube anyhow?
To answer that question, the tube should contain something that can release electrons, the so-called cathode.  
We know that conduction in metals takes place by means of free electrons. These electrons can move freely throughout the metal because they are not bound to certain atomic nucleus.
To release free electrons from the metal, energy is required in order to overcome the one-sided attractive power of adjacent positively charged atoms.
This so-called release energy is determined by the charge of an electron multiplied by the potential difference the electron passes through. This potential difference is called the release voltage. Electrons can acquire the required energy to overcome the release voltage by heating the metal thus leading to thermionic emission.

The cathode now, consists of thin tube covered with barium and strontium oxide. A filament, which is covered with aluminum oxide, is mounted inside this tiny tube. The purpose of the aluminum oxide is to prevent shortage with the cathode. 
See figure 1 in which:

                  f  is the filament
                  k  is the cathode
                  a is the anode

If the filament is heated, thermionic emission will cause the cathode to release electrons.
When a metal plate, the anode, is placed at some distance around the cathode, we call it a diode. See figure 2. 

When there is no voltage applied between anode and cathode, yet a small amount of electrons will leave the cathode. Some of them will reach the anode and cause a negative charge on the anode. The other electrons will surround the cathode as a cloud of electrons. This causes a so-called space charge that prevents the cathode from releasing more electrons.
If we connect now a current measuring device between the anode and the cathode, electrons will return from the anode to the cathode and the needle of the measuring device will deflect.
If we apply a negative voltage between the anode and the cathode, this current will be diminished and at a sufficient negative voltage, this current will even completely disappear. Usually, this occurs at a voltage of -0,1 to -1,5 Volt.
The region between 0 to -1,5 Volt is called the initial current region. See the curve on the right in figure 2.
However, if we apply now a sufficiently positive voltage between the anode and cathode, a great amount of electrons will flow from cathode to anode thus causing a so-called negative space charge. This negative space charge causes the potential in the vicinity of the cathode to decrease or even gets negative. This space charge region hampers the release of new electrons.
However, with the increase in anode voltage, a positive effect on the space charge region is observed and breaks the space charge down. See picture 2.
When the anode voltage is even further increased, a point will be reached at which the anode current hardly increases.
This is the so-called saturation region of the tube as depicted in the graph in figure 2.
The space charge has now completely disappeared and all electrons that have been released by the cathode have reached the anode.

3.5.3  The Triode
In the vacuum tube diode, there was no way of controlling the amount of current flow in the tube. It was either conducting, or not conducting.
When in the diode as described above, a spiral shaped wire construction is placed between the cathode and anode, we call this tube a triode. This wire construction is called grid. See g in figure 1 and figure 3.

Thus the triode consists of three active elements, the cathode, the grid and the anode. The current flow between cathode and anode can now be adjusted by varying the voltage level on the grid. If a resistance is placed between the anode and the high voltage supply, the voltage variations at the anode is greater than the grid voltage variations, thus, amplification takes place.
It is important to mention that control of the anode current occurs without any delay. 
As was implicitly mentioned before, anode current Ia depends on the grid voltage Vg and supply voltage Vb.
The measured relationship between these parameters can be graphically represented as depicted in figure 4 below.
The triode circuit that is underlying this graphical representation is also shown in figure 4.


If we look at the circuit, we see that the power supply Vb is connected to the anode through resistor Ra. The grid bias voltage is -Vg, the anode-cathode voltage is Va and the anode current is Ia.
We now can write down the following equation: 
Vb = Va + Ia×Ra or otherwise noted:  Ia = -(1/Ra)×Va + Vb/Ra
The graphical representation of this equation is a straight line determined by the coordinates Va=0,Ia=Vb/Ra and Va=Vb,Ia=0. (Compare this with the equation for a straight line y=mx+q in which m is the tangent of the angle formed by the straight line and the x-axis)

The point of intersection of the straight line with the various Vg lines determines the value of the anode voltage Va and the anode current Ia. The straight line is called the load line.
When we now vary the grid voltage Vg, the point of intersection will move along the load line. The point of intersection is called the operating point of the tube. 

The amount of grid voltage variations and anode current variations can graphically be determined as shown in the lower red curve of the left graph in figure 4.
In figure 4, the grid has a fixed bias of -1 Volt. On this grid bias voltage, a 1 Volt peak/peak sinusoidal signal has been superimposed. By dragging the anode currents in the left graph to the intersection points with the load line in the right graph, we will find the mating anode voltage variations and naturally also the mating grid voltage variations.

The lower red curve in the left graph of figure 4 that was used to determine the variations in anode voltage by means of the load line is called the dynamic Ia-Vg characteristic.
With the aid of this dynamic Ia-Vg characteristic we can easily construct the static Ia-Vg characteristic.
To do so, we set the load resistance to zero which causes the load line to be perpendicular to the Va axis.
By dragging the corresponding intersection points of the load line with the Vg lines to the Ia axis and Vg axis in the left graph, we derive at the static Ia-Vg characteristic. See upper black curve in left graph of figure 4.
It is important to mention that these characteristics are valid for only one supply voltage Vb.

From the characteristics in figure 4 we can deduct some very important tube parameters. 

Static mutual conductance:  Sstat = (ΔIa/ΔVg)  at constant Va

Tube resistance:                   Ri = (ΔVa/ΔIa)      at constant Vg

Amplification factor:            μ = -(ΔVa/ΔVg)    at constant Ia

These three parameters are interrelated by the equation:  μ = Sstat×Ri
We can also calculate the relationship between the static and dynamic mutual conductance.
Sdyn = dIa/dVg   or  dIa = Sdyn×dVg
For small signal changes we can write the equation  Vb = Ia×Ra + Va as follows:
dVa = Vb - Ra×dIa  hence dVa = Vb - Sdyn×Ra×dVg
The amplification factor μ is: dVa/dVg = -Sdyn×Ra
From the equations for the model of a triode, which are not further discussed here, we can deduct that:
dIa = μ×dVg/(Ri + Ra)  hence it follows that  dIa/dVg = Sdyn = μ/(Ri + Ra)
Due to the fact that μ = Sstat×Ri  we can calculate that  Sdyn = Sstat×Ri/(Ri + Ra)

3.5.4  The Tetrode
Adding another grid to the triode, between the control grid and the anode, makes it a so-called tetrode.
This grid, the screen grid indicated as G2 in figure 3, act as an electrostatic screen between control grid and anode thereby reducing the stray capacitance between control grid and anode by a factor of 1000 as compared to the triode.
Due to this reduction in stray capacitance, the retroaction from anode to control grid is much smaller as is the case in a triode.
A second consequence of adding a screen grid is that the anode voltage has hardly any effect on the total emission current i.e. the sum of anode current and screen grid current.
The ration of anode current and screen grid current is heavily influenced by secondary emission of anode and screen grid causing the Ia-Va characteristic of vintage tetrode tubes to have unpleasant irregularities as can be seen in figure 5 below.
The curvature in this graph limits the use of the tetrode for those anode voltages that are greater than the screen grid voltage.
If no anode voltage is applied, the total cathode current will flow to the screen grid and the anode current is zero. For small positive anode voltages, the anode current will rapidly rise with increasing anode voltage. The bulk of the electrons will flow through the meshes of the screen grid to the anode.
However, due to the low anode voltage, the energy of these electrons is too low to cause secondary emission. If we now increase the anode voltage, electrons that hit the anode will cause secondary emission. These electrons are located in the region between the anode and screen grid and will move towards the electrode that has the highest potential i.e. the screen grid. Hence, the screen grid current will increase and the anode current will decrease. The secondary emission can even get that large that the lowest part of the curve will cross the horizontal axis.
If we make the anode voltage larger than the screen grid voltage, the secondary electrons will return to the anode. Part of the primary electrons though, may reach the screen grid and will free secondary electrons. These electrons will move to the anode thus increasing the anode current.
With respect to anode voltages greater than the screen grid voltage, the anode current is fairly constant.
From the Ia-Va characteristic it can be concluded that for anode voltages greater than the screen grid voltage, the tube resistance is very high. The mutual conductance is, assuming equal dimensions, somewhat smaller than the mutual conductance of the triode because there will always flow some current to the screen grid. 
The amplification factor μ, that is equal to Sstat.Ri, is also much larger than that of a triode.

3.5.5  The Penthode
If we add a third grid to the tetrode, we get a penthode. This third grid is called a suppressor grid and is inserted between the anode and the screen grid. The suppressor grid is a wide mesh like grid held at a low potential since its only job is to collect the stray secondary emission electrons that bounce off the anode. 
The suppressor grid, identified as G3 in figure 3, is usually internally connected to the cathode
It appears now that, at normal bias conditions of the tube, the anode voltage has minor effect on the anode current, in other words, the tube resistance is very high.
The penthode characteristics are shown in figure 6 below.


It is important to mention that the Ia-Va graphs on the right side of figure 6 are valid for one particular screen grid voltage, in this case 250 Volt. The graphs on the left side of figure 6 show that the screen grid voltage heavily determines the anode current. The dashed lines show this dependency very clearly for screen grid voltages of 150 Volt and 300 Volt. 
Notice also that at a screen grid voltage of 250 Volt the static and dynamic Ia-Vg characteristics hardly differ from each other.
Both the static and dynamic characteristics have been derived from the Ia-Va characteristics. As a matter of fact, the Ia-Vg curves for 150 Volt and 300 Volt respectively have not been derived from the Ia-Va curves because the curves in the right graph of figure 6 are only valid for a screen grid voltage of 250 Volt.

3.6    The invention and the evolution of the transistor
The history of the invention of the transistor is an interesting story. In 1945 Mervin J. Kelly, "Director of Research" of Bell Laboratories, had the objective to drastically improve the unreliable telephone system of AT&T by employing electronic switching and better amplifiers.
Vacuum tubes were not very reliable at that time, principally because they generated a great deal of heat even when they were not being used, and, particularly, because filaments burned out and the tubes had to be replaced.
In 1945 a solid-state physics group was formed that had the major objective to develop a solid-state amplifier. 
The meaning of solid-state here was all that had to do with semiconductor technology.
In 1947, John Bardeen en Walter Brattain, who formed a part of that working group, discovered during their general research on semiconductor materials that, when two closely spaced metal point were pressed into the surface of a piece of semiconductor material, this configuration had amplifier properties.
Shockley, who was in charge of this research work, demonstrated shortly thereafter that, based on theoretical considerations, these amplifier properties could also be evoked by attaching a piece of p-germanium to both sides of a thin disk of n-germanium. What p and n-germanium is will be discussed in chapter 3.6.2. This new amplifier element was called transistor (composition of transformer and resistor).
The first type was called point-contact transistor named after the two metal points that were used and the second type was called junction transistor. 
The point-contact transistor has only led a very short life, however, shortly thereafter, the junction transistor has been produced in very large numbers.  
The very fast distribution of the transistor is not that strange if we consider that the transistor, like the radio tube, possesses amplifier properties, though it is much smaller in size on the other hand. Having the advantage of a smaller size, not yet all advantages of the transistor have been mentioned. 
As we saw in the electron tube, the amplification property was based on control of electrons that, however, first needed to be released from the cathode. In the transistor however, these electrons are already available by nature, hence, no additional external energy is required to free the electrons.
A filament in the transistor is totally superfluous causing that the efficiency of the transistor to be much higher than the efficiency of an electron tube. Furthermore, an electron tube requires for its operation a supply voltage that is higher than ten volts whereas the transistor operates at a voltage as low as 1 Volt. 
Because of this low supply voltage, the power dissipation in a transistor is substantially lower than it is in an electron tube.
Apart from these advantages, the transistor yet has some disadvantages such as the temperature dependency of certain transistor parameters. Although it is possible to take measures against this drawback, the maximum temperature at which germanium transistors can be operated is limited to 8o°C. In the case of a silicon transistor, this maximum operating temperature is somewhat around 150°C.
Another disadvantage in this initial period of the transistor was the difficulty to produce transistors that had acceptable and useful gain properties at very high frequencies. This characteristic of the transistor has drastically been improved in the last decennia in the 20th century due to the strongly improved manufacturing processes. 
Also a big disadvantage of the transistor is its susceptibility to high temperatures and high voltages. When a transistor is used at high junction temperatures it is possible for regenerative heating to occur which will result in thermal run-away and possible destruction of the transistor. Due to improper cooling or bad design of the circuit in which the transistor is used, the temperature may rise that high that the gain factor and leakage current will increase which in turn will increase collector current even further. 
Consequently, internal dissipation will further increase and this regenerative process will eventually kill the transistor.
On the other hand, high voltages may lead to break-down between junctions in the transistor causing immediate destruction of the transistor. High voltages will also increase leakage currents that in turn will increase the junction temperature that eventually will also kill the transistor.

3.6.1    Semiconducting in germanium and silicon 
During the discussion on thermionic emission in the electron tube it was mentioned that conduction of metals is caused by free electrons. These electrons can freely move around in the material, this in contrast with the valance electrons in semiconductor material that are bound to specific ions.
In conductors, the concentration of free electrons is hardly dependent on temperature. At absolute zero, the amount of free electrons does not differ that much as that at room temperature.
On the other hand, semiconductors behave as perfect isolators at absolute zero because all electrons are confined at their specific places in the crystal lattice. Germanium and silicon are typical examples of such a semiconductor.
From chemistry we know that a germanium atom is made-up of a positively charged nucleus of 32 protons and 32 electrons traveling within their respective orbits. The silicon atom's nucleus possesses a positive charge of 14 protons and 14 electrons traveling also within their respective orbits. The electrons traveling in their orbit, possess energy since they are a definite mass in motion. Each electron in its relationship with its parent nucleus thus exhibits an energy value and functions at a definite and distinct energy level. This energy level is dictated by the electron's momentum and its physical proximity to the nucleus.
The closer the electron to the nucleus, the greater the holding influence of the nucleus on the electron and the greater the energy required for the electron to break loose and become free. Likewise, the further away the electron from the nucleus the less its influence on the electron. Outer orbit electrons can therefore be said to be stronger than inner orbit electrons because of their ability to break loose from the parent atom. For this reason they are called valence electrons. The outer orbit in which valence electrons exist is called the valence band. These are the electrons from this band that are dealt with in the discussion of transistor physics. 
It is important to mention that both in the germanium and silicon outer band a number of 4 valence electrons are in orbit.
These 4 electrons do have such a low energy level that they can easily be freed from the valence band and become conduction electrons.
Germanium atoms and silicon atoms are what we call tetravalent and can form crystals having a tetrahedron lattice structure in which each atom is bound to 4 other atoms by covalent binding. In each bondage 2 valence electrons take part.
The figure on the right shows the positioning of the germanium atoms in the tetrahedron lattice structure.
The spherical objects represent the germanium atoms while the bars, connecting the spheres, represent the covalent binding.
If the temperature of semiconductor material is raised above absolute zero, valence electrons may break away from the covalent bond due to the acquired energy and will move through the crystal. 
In principle, each isolator could become a conductor by applying this theory, however, only the typical semiconductor materials like germanium and silicon acquire a useful amount of conductivity already at room temperature.
It is said that when the electrons break out off the covalent bond, they enter the conduction band actually meaning the interval of energies the electrons may have.
In order to break an electron loose from the covalent bond into the conduction band, it requires at least an energy of qE. The chance that an electron acquires this energy by thermal kinetic energy at a temperature T is, like we saw at thermionic emission, also proportional with the Boltzmann-factor e-qE/kT
In the case of pure germanium qE= 0,76 eV and in the case of silicon qE= 1,12 eV.
At a room temperature of 300 oF, the factor kT has a value of somewhat around 0,025.

(k = 1.38 x 10-23 Joule/oK = 8.616 x 10-5 eV/oK)
Note 1:
In physics the unit of energy, the Joule, is not very practical to work with. Therefore, the electronvolt is used as unit of energy.
An electronvolt is defined as the amount of energy that an electron acquires when that electron, having a charge of 1,602.10-19 Coulomb, traverses a potential difference of 1 Volt. 
From this definition we can conclude that 1 electronvolt = 1eV = 1,602.10-19 Joule.

Note 2: 
In the next paragraphs, only germanium will be discussed because the lecture material that is being discussed is also applicable to silicon. In case differences, as far as silicon is concerned, are applicable, they will specifically be mentioned and discussed.

Due to the fact that qE has a much greater value than kT, the Boltzmann-factor e-qE/kT will have a very small value and is also very sensitive to small variations in E or T.
It appears that, already at room temperature, a useful concentration of electrons in the conduction band is obtained when the value of qE is not much greater than 1 eV.
Each time a covalent bond is broken and an electron enters the conduction band, an electron deficiency, called a hole, is created at that particular spot where the electron left the covalent bond.
In perfect pure germanium, the concentration nh of these holes (number of holes per cm3) should be equal to the concentration ne of the free electrons.
Even when very small impurities are present in the material, it may occur that ne is equal to nh.
As long as this equality is true, the germanium is called an intrinsic semiconductor (i-germanium).
Also holes can easily move through the germanium: namely, open spaces can be occupied by valence electrons of the adjacent germanium atoms.
This movement of a hole can best be visualized by imagining having a game in which 15 numbered tiles have to be moved across an area consisting of 16 fields until they are lined up in the proper sequence.
The tiles can be seen as the valence electrons while the single open field constitutes the hole.
In every respect, the holes can be considered as positive charged particles: for instance, under the influence of an electric field, they will move through the material in a direction opposite to that of the electrons.
As soon as the distance between a hole and an electron is in the order of twice the distance between atoms, the binding force between the hole and the electron is practically reduced to zero: the intermediate material acts as an effective barrier. Therefore, one can assume that electrons and holes, independently from each other, move freely throughout the semiconductor material.

3.6.2    n and p Germanium
Conductivity in germanium semiconductor material can strongly be increased by adding very small impurities of certain material.
When atoms of such impurities which have a different valence than germanium, occupy the places of the germanium atoms in the tetrahedric grid, there will locally be a short or an excess of valence electrons. Should the replacement impurity atom contain 5 electrons in its valence band, which is specifically the case for arsenic and antimony, 4 electrons will be used to form covalent bonds with the neighboring semiconductor atoms. The fifth electron is excess or extra.
This free electron has a weak bondage to the atom and is therefore free to leave the parent atom and can easily enter the conduction band (excitation energy is less than 0,1 eV).
We may state that, at room temperature, practically all excess valence electrons have entered the conduction band.
Arsenic and antimony atoms in a germanium grid function as donors of electrons. These electrons do not leave behind holes since the four remaining electrons join covalently with electrons of the neighbor atoms and thus satisfy the localized valency requirements. The donor atom is therefore locked in position in the crystal and cannot move. With the loss of the electron the donor's charge balance is upset causing it to ionize. The donor impurity atom, therefore, can be viewed as a fixed-in-position positive ion.
The conduction in germanium containing 5 impurity electrons in its valence band is mainly caused by free electrons since the electrons greatly outnumber the holes in the crystal.
The germanium crystal is negative in nature and is therefore called n-type germanium.
Should, on the other hand, the replacement impurity atom contain only 3 electrons in its valence band, such as indium or gallium, all three will be used up in covalent bonds with neighboring semiconductor atoms. Since a lack of one electron prevails an empty space will exist causing one bond to be unsatisfied. This empty space in the impurity atom's valence band is called a hole and is positive in nature. This empty space now can easily accept an electron from the germanium crystal in order to satisfy the incomplete bond. This action results in a moving hole and as in the case of the donor atom, this action contributes to locking the acceptor in its lattice position, hence, it cannot move. 
The gaining of an electron upsets the acceptor's charge balance causing it to ionize. Thus, the acceptor impurity atom, like the donor, can also be viewed as a fixed-in-position ion, but one of negative charge.
Since, in this case, a hole has been generated elsewhere in the crystal, positive holes predominate and the material is called p-type germanium.
Having understood the above, we can ascertain the following important result: The doping of intrinsic semiconductor material not only increases conductivity but also produces a conductor in which the carriers in the conduction process are predominant holes or electrons. In p-type material, holes predominating, are the majority carriers; electrons the minority carriers. In n-type material, electrons predominating, are the majority carriers; holes are the minority carriers.

Concentrations of donor or acceptor atoms in the order of 1 per 109 germanium atoms constitute already a distinct change in conductivity.
To produce p- or n-germanium having well defined donor or acceptor concentrations, it is required to start-off by producing pure germanium followed by adding precise controlled amounts of donor or acceptor impurities.

3.6.3    The p-n junction
There are various ways to create a precise defined borderline between n-material and p-material in a germanium crystal. For instance, if we solder at an accurate defined temperature an indium contact to a piece of n-germanium and let the solder joint cool down, a thin layer of the germanium will crystallize into p-germanium underneath the solder joint. This is because some of the indium material forms an alloy with the germanium. Note that the indium, that is trivalent, functions as an acceptor. 
The p-n junctions in most germanium layer diodes and germanium layer transistors are made according this so called alloy process (alloy junction).
Another way to create a p-n junction in a germanium crystal is the so called crystal grow process. A single germanium crystal is grown by pulling it very slowly out of a melt of molten germanium in which an excess of donor atoms (impurities) has been added.  
Now, a crystal of n-germanium is formed and while the grow process continues, one can create a sudden transition to p-germanium by adding an excess of acceptor atoms to the melt.
In that way a grown p-n junction is obtained.

Across the p-n junction there exists a so called contact potential that we can explain as follows (see picture on the right): As soon as a p-n junction has been formed, holes from the p-germanium will diffuse to the right across the junction to the n-germanium where they can recombine with the free electrons or they can diffuse back to the p-germanium. Due to the fact that right from junction in the n-germanium free electrons disappear, there is left at that place an excess of positively charged germanium ions; where on the left side of the junction holes disappear, an excess of negative charge is formed. The areas of opposite charge that as such do exist at both sides of the junction form a dipole layer in which the concentration of mobile holes and electrons is much lower than outside that layer. 
This charge density is depicted in the figure on the right.
In practice the junction has a thickness of only half a micron.
Since the region of the junction is depleted of mobile charges, it is called the depletion region.
At the junction, this depletion region evokes a strong electric field that restrains the process of  diffusion. This field adjusts itself automatically such that, on an average per second, an equal amount of holes will flow to the left as well as to the right. 
At this equilibrium condition, a contact potential Epn (see picture above) does exist across the p-germanium and n-germanium.
Holes that want to traverse the p-n junction from the left side to the right side, must pass the potential barrier Epn; the fraction of holes that have sufficient thermionic energy to achieve this is always proportional to the Boltzmann factor.
There is also a hole current from right to left: all holes in the n-germanium that diffuse towards the junction, fall-off the potential barrier Epn .
These holes constitute a current of which the amount of current does not in the first place depend on the height of the barrier but solely from the concentration of holes in the n-germanium.
This current is a saturated current. As long as the p-n junction (diode) is not connected to any outside voltage source, both hole currents must equalize resulting in a net hole current of zero.
However, when a voltage V is applied to the p-n junction such that the p-germanium is made positive with respect to the n-germanium, then the net hole current is no longer zero.
If we neglect the voltage drop across the germanium, the potential barrier at the junction is reduced with the value V. 
The equilibrium that was present at the p-n junction at the time no voltage was applied yet, is now disturbed; holes will now flow from the p-germanium to the n-germanium. This hole current will strongly increase with V, however, the hole current from the n-germanium to the p-germanium does hardly change since this is a saturated current as already mentioned earlier.
Thus, this saturation current is not dependent on the voltage V but is strongly dependent on the temperature. 
The essential part in the characteristic behavior of a p-n junction is that it constitutes a rectifier or in other words a diode. This diode does conduct the current in only one direction and blocks the current in the other direction.

Nothing has been mentioned so far with respect to the conduction of electrons, this in order not to make things too complex. However, a similar reasoning can be set up for the conduction of electrons. By adding the hole current and the electron current we derive at a total current that in the forward direction (V>0) strongly increases with V and in the reverse direction (V<0) for small values of V approaches  the saturation current.
Figure 7 on the right illustrates the current-voltage characteristic of a small layer diode. 
By adding up the hole current and the electron current, we eventually can set up an equation for the total current:
 I = I0(eqV/kT - 1)
For T=300°K the value q/kT is in the order of 40.
If we assume that I0 = 0.3 μA, the curve fits extremely well the given formula for the total current.
An important parameter we have to watch very carefully is the maximum allowable voltage at reverse bias. If this value is exceeded, the p-n junction will break-down and the diode is completely destroyed.
Before break-down occurs, the reverse bias current strongly increases. An explanation for this phenomenon is that the thermionically created charge carriers, which take care for conduction in reverse direction, are that heavily accelerated by the reverse bias voltage that, when they have crossed the p-n junction, they will break loose secondary holes and electrons causing an acceleration of charge carriers. At break-down, the acceleration factor will be "infinite".
It should be mentioned that the diode characteristic for a silicon diode slightly differs from the characteristic of a germanium diode. The forward voltage of a germanium diode at a specified forward diode current lies between 0.2 and 0.5 Volt while in case of a silicon diode the forward voltage lies between 0.6 and 0.8 Volt. 
As far as the reverse voltage is concerned, it is much higher for a silicon diode than for a germanium diode, however, the maximum voltage is strongly dependent on the structure of the diode. Nowadays, silicon diodes are manufactured that can withstand a reverse voltage of 1000-2000 Volts while in the early days of the germanium diodes, this reverse voltage was merely 50 Volts.
Furthermore, various parameters of the silicon diode are much less temperature dependent than the parameters of a germanium diode. 

3.6.4    The transistor
A junction transistor consists of a germanium (or silicon) crystal in which a layer of n-germanium is sandwiched between two layers of p-germanium. Alternatively, a transistor may consist of a p-type germanium layer sandwiched between two layers of n-type germanium.
In the former case the transistor is referred to as p-n-p transistor (see figure 8a), and in the latter case, as an n-p-n transistor (see figure 8b).
Apart from showing the layer build-up, figure 8a and 8b also show the representation of both types of transistors when employed in electronic circuits. 
The three portions of a transistor are known as emitter, base and collector. The arrow on the emitter lead specifies the direction of current flow when the emitter-base junction is biased in the forward direction.

Based on what has been said in the previous sub-paragraphs about semi-conducting and the behavior of p-n junctions, the principle of operation of a transistor can easily be explained.
Figure 8c on the right shows a p-n-p transistor in which appropriate voltages have been applied to the emitter and collector. When the emitter is made somewhat more positive than the basis, a hole current will flow from left to right through the p-n junction. We have discussed that already in the layer diode.
For those holes that do not return again to the emitter, they will diffuse over a certain distance into the base before they are neutralized by conduction electrons.
In case the thickness of the base layer is much smaller as compared to the average distance these holes can diffuse into the base, the majority of the holes will reach the right n-p junction.
If the collector is biased negative with respect to the base, these holes will be immediately "swallowed" by the collector.
In this way a hole current originating from one type of semiconductor is transported right through a thin layer of an other type of semiconductor.
This is in principle the operation of the transistor. Because there are actually two types of mobile charge carriers (holes and electrons) that take care of the conduction, this type of transistor is called a bi-polar transistor.
The property that the emitter-base junction delivers current at a very small positive emitter-base voltage and that current is collected at the collector at a much higher negative voltage, does implicate the possibility of amplification. 
Because the hole current is a saturated current that reaches the collector at a not too small negative collector voltage, this current will thus not much be influenced by the collector voltage.
We call that a high output impedance. Similar to the penthode where we saw that the anode current is not much influenced by the anode voltage, we can obtain a large voltage amplification by inserting a suitable resistor in the collector circuit.
Considering the emitter current Ie , part of that current being αIe will reach the collector; the rest, (1-α)Ie, flows into the base.
It should be explained here that the current amplification factor α, that has usually a value in the order of 0.95-0.99, is the fraction of the emitter current that reaches the collector.
At not too large values of Ie , α has a constant value. In terms of the 4-pole substitution model for a transistor, α is called the hfb parameter of the transistor.
As we can see in figure 8c, the base is common in both the input circuit and the output circuit.
Therefore, this circuit configuration is called common base circuit.
However, the circuit that is mostly used is the common emitter circuit. This circuit has got more favorable properties than the common base circuit.
If we look at figure 9 at the right we see a common emitter circuit using an n-p-n transistor. We will demonstrate that in this configuration current amplification takes place.  
Assume that Rb and Rc is set to zero. Referring to the common base circuit we can state that IC = hfb.IE   and IE = IB + IC

From both equations we can calculate that IC = hfb(IB + IC) = hfb.IB + hfb.I   
Hence: IC(1 - hfb) = hfb.IB and IC/IB = hfb/(1 - hfb).  In the 4-pole substitution model for the transistor the term hfb/(1 - hfb) is called the dc forward current transfer ratio or dc current gain of the transistor in common emitter configuration.
Suppose that hfb is equal to 0.98 then the current gain hfe will be 0,98/(1-0,98) = 49 which is a considerable current gain.
To visualize the above, figure 10 shows the Ic-Vce characteristic of an often used n-p-n transistor type 2N2222A and use the common emitter circuit as shown in figure 9.
We set Vcc at 10 Volt and the load resistance Rc at 330 Ω.
Note that analogous to the electron tube we also can draw a load line in order to determine the operating point of the transistor.
Further notice that at higher collector voltages the curves tend to show a slight upward inclination. The reason for this behavior is that at higher collector-emitter voltages hfb  
(or α) is not constant anymore but increases and hence also hfe increases.
Let's assume that hfb increases from 0.995 to 0.996 (0,1%) when Vce increases from a few Volts to 10 Volts. 
The current gain factor hfe will change then from 0.995/(1-0.995) = 200 to 0.996/(1-0.996) = 250 which is an increase of  25%.
For completeness we mention further that a common collector circuit configuration is also possible. In the same manner as we did for the common emitter circuit we can calculate that the current gain factor hfc = IE/IB is equal to 1/(1 - hfb). Is for instance hfb equal to 0.98 then 
hfc = 1/(1 - 0.98) = 50.

3.7  Hybrid circuits
A hybrid circuit is a compilation of various electronic components that have their usual encasing removed and are mounted on a ceramic carrier. For instance, a transistor consists of a single chip, resistors are printed on the ceramic, capacitors do not have leads but contact pads.
When high reliability of the hybrid circuits is required, the ceramic carrier containing the components is mounted in an evacuated housing and hermetically sealed.
The contact planes on the edges of the 
ceramic carrier are connected to the outside via a glass feed thru. The picture on the right shows such a hybrid (1980).
Clearly visible are the connection leads of the transistors and diodes. 
Also visible are the black printed resistors; the tiny stripes on the resistors indicate that the resistors haven been trimmed to the correct resistance value by means of a laser beam.
If you click on this hybrid process link,  a specific hybrid manufacturing flow is shown. It is a process flow from back in 1980 but the base process is still valid today.
This process flow actually shows the various building steps in hybrid manufacturing.
On a bare substrate of aluminum oxide Al2O3 , the first process step involves the connections between the various components. These connections are printed in gold.
In a next process step the resistors are printed in various print cycles. Subsequent process steps place the components, wire the chips, place the substrate in the housing and connect the connection pads on the substrate with the connection wires.
As last process step the housing is closed by seam welding a lid on the housing.
It may be clear that in this case it concerned a hybrid with high reliability requirements. This particular hybrid was therefore used in an implantable pacemaker.

It is obvious that this technique had led to a remarkable saving of mounting space this in contrast with the at that time used printed circuit boards. However, today, printed circuit boards can be made extremely small and compact due to the use of Surface Mount Devices (SMD).
SMD components are actually components that do not have connection leads, instead, they contain contact pads and are soldered to similar contact pads on the circuit board.
A further strive for miniaturization has ultimately led to the integrated circuit.

3.8  Integrated circuits (IC's)
In contrast with a printed circuit board containing discrete components and single transistors, an integrated circuit is an electronic assembly of active and passive components that have been fully integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip can then be assembled in a suitable plastic or ceramic housing with connection pads facilitating assembly on a printed circuit board.
In mass production of chips it is highly inefficient to fabricate only single IC's. To increase efficiency, a large amount of identical electronic circuits are built on a single slice of silicon, such a slice of silicon is called a wafer.
Depending on the complexity of the electronic circuit and the dimension of the wafer, thousands of integrated circuits can in that way be built and tested on a wafer using the same processes. 
Integrated circuits are produced by using the same processes used for the production of individual transistors and diodes. These processes include epitaxial growth, masked impurity diffusion, oxide growth, and oxide etching using photolithography for pattern definition.
Although these processes are quite complex, we will try to describe these processes in a non-complicated, easy to understand manner. For, it is the objective of this chapter to get you an insight view on the processes and technologies that form the basis for manufacturing such tiny components containing micro structures and, nowadays, even contain macro structures. 
Another good reason to keep it simple is that the fabrication steps and processes of integrated circuits have continuously changed over the past decennia this in order to produce even smaller IC's with even higher reliability.

3.8.1  IC Technology
The fabrication of integrated circuits is based on having a thorough knowledge on materials, processes and design principles which constitute and guarantee high developed IC technology.
Before we discuss the individual processes, an example of an integrated circuit will be used to describe the base structure of the integrated circuit thus getting a better view on what the different processes bring about.
The basic structure of the example IC is shown in figure 12 below and consists of four distinct layers of material. The bottom layer (A) is p-type silicon and serves as a substrate or body upon which the integrated circuit is to be built. This layer in in this example 6 mils thick. 
In IC technology it is common practice to express IC dimensions in mils i.e. 
1 mil = 0.001 inch = 25.4 μm.
The second layer (B) is thin (typically 15 μm) n-type material which is epitaxially grown as a single crystal extension of the substrate. The epitaxial grow is discussed later on.
All active and passive components are built within the thin n-type layer using a series of diffusion steps.
These components could be transistors, diodes, capacitors and resistors and they are all made by diffusing p-type and n-type impurities. 
In the fabrication of all the above components it is extremely necessary to distribute impurities in certain precisely defined regions within the second (n-type) layer.
The selective diffusion of impurities is accomplished by using silicon dioxide (SiO2) as a barrier which protects portions of the wafer against impurity penetration.
Thus the third layer (C) of material is silicon dioxide and has another important function i.e. to protect the surface of the wafer against contamination.

In the regions where diffusion is to take place, the SiO2 layer is etched away, leaving the rest of the wafer protected against diffusion. To permit selective etching, the SiO2 layer must be subjected to a photolithographic process that will be discussed later on.
Finally, a fourth metallic (aluminum) layer (D) is added to supply the necessary interconnections between components.
In our IC example, the circuit consisted, as the above figure shows, of a resistor, two diodes and a transistor and five connection wires.
The above described IC configuration is called a monolithic integrated circuit because it is formed on a single silicon chip. The word "monolithic" is derived from the Greek word "monos" meaning "single" and "lithos" meaning "stone".

3.8.2.   IC Process description                                                                                                  
In this chapter, the processes are discussed which are required to fabricate IC's.
Figure 13a through 13e can be consulted to get a better view on the individual processes.  Substrate fabrication process
A tiny crystal of silicon is attached to a rod and lowered into a crucible of molten silicon to which p-type acceptor impurities have been added. 
As the rod is very slowly pulled out of the melt under carefully controlled conditions, a single p-type crystal ingot is grown. The ingot is subsequently sliced into round wafers to form the substrate upon which all integrated components will be fabricated.
One side of each wafer is lapped and polished to eliminate surface imperfections before proceeding to the next process.  Epitaxial growth process (see figure 13a)
An n-type epitaxial layer, typically 15μm thick, is grown into a p-type substrate using the epitaxial growth process. The epitaxial process consist of the following process steps:
A precise defined mixture of a reactive gas and a layer of concentrated inert gas is, with a precise controlled speed and at a
 temperature of 1200°C, inserted in a reaction chamber where the gas flows over the surface of the substrate. The gas mixture does not only contain the required n-type doping material but also contains for that purpose an appropriate silicon compound such as silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4). The reactive in the gas evokes a chemical reaction on the surface of the substrate and the silicon will continue to grow using the silicon atoms and doping atoms from the gas mixture. 
The basic chemical reaction used to describe the epitaxial growth of pure silicon is the hydrogen reduction of silicon tetrachloride: SiCl4 + 2H2  <==>  Si + 4HCl                       
After the silicon grow process has been completed, the by-products of the chemical reaction are removed from the reaction chamber. After polishing and cleaning, a thin layer (0.5μm) of silicon oxide (SiO2), is formed over the entire wafer as can be seen in figure 13a. 
The SiO2 layer is grown by exposing the epitaxial layer to an oxygen or steam atmosphere while being heated to about 1000°C. Silicon dioxide has the fundamental property of preventing the diffusion of impurities through it. Use of this property is made in the following process steps.  Isolation diffusion  (see figure 13b)
In figure 13b the wafer is shown with the SiO2 layer removed in four different places on the surface. This removal is accomplished by means of a photolithographic etching process before the actual diffusion takes place.
The remaining SiO2 material serves as a mask for the diffusion of p-type impurities.
The selective removal of 
the SiO2 layer can best be compared with the removal of copper on a printed circuit board using an etching process.
The total area of the wafer is coated with a uniform film of a photosensitive emulsion.
A large black-and-white layout of the desired pattern of openings in the SiO2 is made end then reduced photographically. 
This negative, or stencil, of the required dimensions is placed as a mask over the photoresist.
By exposing the photoresist to ultraviolet light through the mask, the photoresist becomes polymerized under the transparent regions of the stencil.

Remark: Nowadays, the structures on a chip are that small that it is obvious that exposing by ultraviolet light is not possible anymore simply due to the fact that the dimensions of the structures on the chip approach the wavelength of the employed light. This will lead to resolution problems. 
In case of dimensions in the sub-micron area, the quite expensive X-ray lithography process is yet still in use. An alternative solution is to make use of the electron beam lithography process that even enables direct writing on the chip.
Quite new developments are ongoing in the area of laser lithography whereby even resolutions in the order of 10 nanometer can be achieved.

The mask in now removed, and the wafer is developed by using a chemical substance which dissolves the unexposed (unpolymerized) portions of the photoresist film. The emulsion which was not removed in the development process is now fixed, or cured, so that it becomes resistant to the corrosive etches used next.
The chip is now immersed in an etching solution which removes the SiO2 from the areas where the emulsion has been removed and through which dopants are to be diffused.
After diffusion of impurities, the polymerized resist mask is removed with a chemical solvent coupled with a mechanical abrasion process.
The most important process in IC fabrication is the diffusion process which takes place at a temperature of 1000°C. With respect to the reproducibility of the diffusion process, this temperature must be maintained within 1-2°C.
A mixture of metal vapor which contains the p-type impurities and an inert gas, for instance nitrogen, brings the impurity atoms to the surface of the wafer where they can diffuse into the n-type epitaxial layer until they reach the p-type substrate.
We thus obtain the three gray shaded n-type isolation regions as can be seen in figure 13b. 
These sections are called isolation islands because they are separated by two back-to-back p-n junctions. Their purpose is to allow electrical isolation between different circuit components.
The p-type substrate must always be held at a negative potential with respect to the isolation islands in order that the p-n junctions be reversed biased. If these diodes were to become forward biased in an operating circuit, then, of course, the isolation would be lost.
It should be noted that the concentration of acceptor atoms in the region between isolation islands will generally be much higher than in the p-type substrate. These region are therefore indicated by a p+.
The reason for this higher concentration is to prevent the depletion region of the reverse biased isolation-to-substrate junction from extending into the p+-type material and possibly connecting two isolation islands.

A more advanced technique that also facilitates very accurate doping is the so called ion-implantation. From the point of view of process technology, the characteristic of ion-implantation is that it is a cold process, this in contrast with the above described diffusion process which takes place at a temperature of 1000°C.
This advantage combined with the possibility to define very well the profile of the doping, makes that this technique is preferably used in the fabrication of modern high quality integrated circuits.
In ion-implantation, the wafer is placed in an evacuated chamber and bombarded with, in an electric field accelerated ionized, atoms of the required doping material. By adjusting the energy of the ions, the penetration depth can precisely be determined.
Ion-implantation is a very expensive technique, however, for the fabrication of MOS circuits it is indispensable. MOS stands for "Metal Oxide Semiconductor". These MOS components will yet be discussed later on very briefly, this because they have specific advantages over transistors and hence are quite often employed in digital circuits such as controllers, micro-processors and memory devices.  Base diffusion
During this process a new SiO2 layer is formed over the wafer, and the photolithographic process is used again to create the pattern of openings shown in figure 13c.
The p-type impurities are diffused through these openings and, in this way, the transistor base regions as well as the resistors and the anode of diodes are formed.
It is very important to control the depth of the diffusion so that it is shallow and does not penetrate to the substrate.  Emitter diffusion
A layer of SiO2 is again formed over the entire surface of the wafer and the masking and etching processes are used again to open five windows in the p-type regions as shown in figure 13d.
Through these openings n-type impurities are diffused for the formation of the transistor emitters and the cathode regions for the diodes. 
Additional windows, such as W1 and W2 in figure 13d, are often made into the n-regions to which a lead is to be connected for making interconnections.
During the diffusion of phosphorus in this case, a heavy concentration n+ is formed at the points where contact with aluminum is to be made. Aluminum is a p-type impurity in silicon, and a large concentration of phosphorus prevents the formation of a p-n junction when the aluminum is alloyed to form an ohmic contact.  Aluminum metallization 
All p-n junctions and resistors have been formed in the preceding process steps. It is now necessary to interconnect the various components of the IC as dictated by the electronic circuit. 
To make these connections, a fourth set of windows is opened into a newly formed SiO2 layer at the points where contact is to be made. 
The interconnections are made first using vacuum deposition of a thin even coating of aluminum over the entire wafer. The photoresist technique is now applied to etch away all undesired aluminum areas, leaving the desired pattern of interconnections between resistors, diodes and transistors (see figure 13e).
After the metalization process has been completed, the wafer is scribed with a diamond-tipped tool and separated into individual chips.
An example of a complete wafer can be seen in the picture below while the extraction shows an
enlarged part of a single chip on the
wafer. One can clearly see the square
pads where the bonding wires are to
be connected and the separation lines of the individual chips.

Furthermore, this chip-picture shows a more complex chip that very likely concerns a microprocessor chip from back in 1980. The quite uniform areas in the center of the chip are memory cells of the processor (RAM and ROM).

3.9  Field-effect transistors
A field-effect transistor is a semiconductor device which depends for its operation on the control of current by an electric field. Because the conduction of current predominantly takes place by majority carriers, these devices are called unipolar transistors.
There are two types of field-effect transistors, the junction field-effect transistor (abbreviated JFET, or simply FET) and the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (abbreviated MOSFET). 
Both types will be discussed briefly this in order to complete the total transistor picture.
Another reason to discus them is the fact that field-effect transistors have remarkable advantages over bipolar transistors.
These advantages are:
1) The operation of field-effect transistors depends upon the flow of majority carriers only and
     therefore a lot of parameters are less sensitive to temperature changes.
2) Field-effect transistors are simpler to fabricate and circuits occupy less space in integrated
3) High input impedance in the order of 1010 Ω.
4) Field-effect transistors can be used as a symmetrical bilateral switch.
5) By means of the charge stored on small internal capacitances, the field-effect transistor
    functions as a memory device.

3.9.1  The JFET
The structure of an n-channel field-effect transistor is shown in figure 14a. Ohmic contacts are made to the two ends of a semiconductor bar of n-type material. 
On top of the bar, a layer of p-type material is diffused which is provided by an ohmic contact as well.
In case of a p-channel JFET the type of p and n-material is just opposite.
We will only discuss here the n-channel JFET.
If we connect a voltage supply between the two ends of the n-channel bar (see figure 14b), current is caused to flow. This current consists of majority carriers, which in this case are electrons. The terminal through which the majority carriers enter the bar is called the source and where they leave the bar is called the drain.
The p-type layer that has been diffused on top of the n-type bar is called the gate. 
As we saw earlier at the bipolar transistor, that around a p-n junction, a depletion area is formed of which the depth of the area depends on the voltage applied across the p-n junction.
Furthermore, we have learned that this layer predominantly extends to the less doped area.
Because the gate layer is heavily doped (p+), the depletion region will extend deep into the n-channel area. 
In normal use, the junction between the channel and the gate is reverse biased (see figure 14b).
Let's now consider the conductivity of the channel in the direction of source to drain.
The depletion layer is depleted of mobile charge carriers which in fact implies that the available material for conductivity is only n-type material outside the depletion region.
An increase of reverse bias of the gate-source will increase the depletion region and hence conductivity decreases. On the other hand, decreasing the reverse bias will increase conductivity. Thus it is possible to control the current between source and drain by means of the gate voltage. The voltage
VDS applied between drain and source causes the junction voltage at the location of the drain to be greater than the voltage at the location of the source. In other words the drain end of the gate is more reverse biased than the source end, and hence the boundary of depletion is not parallel to the longitudinal axis of the channel but is curved as shown in figure 14a.
At a specific combination of VGS and VDS, the depletion layer at the location of the drain will extend to the full depth of the n-channel causing the current flow to be zero.
This is called "pinch-off". The voltage VGS , at which at a given value of  VDS pinch-off occurs, is called pinch-off voltage.
When VDS increases, current will rapidly increase until the saturation current is reached.
Figure 14c shows the characteristic of a n-channel JFET.  Fabrication of the JFET
Figure 15a shows the top view geometry of a JFET while figure 15b shows the cross section in the plane AA.
The substrate is of p-type material onto which an n-type channel is epitaxially grown. A p-type gate is then diffused into the n-type channel. The p-type gate is heavily doped (p+) to allow the depletion layer to penetrate into the n-type channel.

3.9.2  De MOSFET
In a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) an electric field is applied to the channel through a p-n diode. A basically different field-effect device is obtained by using a metal gate electrode separated by an oxide layer from the semiconductor channel.
By applying an external voltage between the gate and the substrate, the electric field will influence the channel. 
Such a device is called a MOSFET or MOS transistor and is of much greater importance than the JFET because it can be fabricated much smaller than the JFET which gives the advantage of less current consumption and operation at much higher frequencies. This is very important in today's generation microprocessors and memory devices.

There are two types of MOSFETs, the "depletion" MOSFET and the "enhancement" MOSFET.
Both types can exist in either the p-channel or an n-channel variety. Therefore, four types of MOSFET transistors can be distinguished as the picture below indicates.

Notice that in the n-channel and p-channel MOSFET, the p+ and n+ regions are fully isolated, this in contrast with the n and p-channel depletion MOSFET. In the depletion devices, the drain and source are connected through a small diffused layer of the same type of impurities as used for the drain and source.
This means that at VGS is 0 Volt, yet a current will flow from drain to source.
As far as the operation and fabrication is concerned, only the n-channel enhancement MOSFET will be discussed, this to keep it simple.  The n-channel enhancement MOSFET
At equilibrium, when no voltages are connected to the MOSFET, the p-substrate and n+ source and drain form a p-n junction.
Therefore a depletion region exists between the n+ source and drain and the p-substrate as can be seen in figure 17a on the right.
Since the source and drain are separated by back-to-back p-n junctions, the resistance between the source and drain is very high
(approximately 1012 Ω.
When a positive potential is applied to the gate with respect to the source (see figure 17b) and no voltage is applied yet between drain and source, holes located under the gate will extend deeper into the p-substrate while for the electrons the opposite is valid. Right under the gate, a thin layer is formed in which only electrons are available as charge carriers. 
This situation is called "inversion" since the layer has now obtained the characteristics of n-material. Such an inversion layer, and thus a significant conductive channel, is formed only if the gate voltage exceeds the so called threshold voltage.
When a voltage is now applied between drain and source (see figure 17b), drain current ID will start to flow provided VGS extends the threshold voltage.
Now, it is also clear where the term enhancement MOSFET comes from. When VGS = 0 Volt, no drain current will flow. Values of VGS greater than zero volt will enrich (enhance) the channel this in contrast with the depletion type MOSFET where certainly flows a drain current when VGS = 0 Volt. By making VGS  negative, the channel will reduce to poverty (depletion) or even the channel is made completely empty.
Figure 17c shows the ID-VDS characteristic of an n-channel enhancement MOSFET with VGS as parameter.  Fabrication of an n-channel enhancement MOSFET
Starting with a p-type substrate, an SiO2 layer is grown on the surface. Using the standard masking and etching processes, two openings are made in the SiO2 layer through which n-type impurities are diffused for making the source and drain region.
A thick layer of oxide is grown over the surface and a second masking and etching process results in three openings in the SiO2 (see figure on the right). In the middle opening, a thin layer of SiO2 is added for the gate oxide. A third mask allows the oxide covering the source and drain regions to be etched away. Aluminum is then evaporated over the entire surface and a final masking and etching process removes the undesired aluminum so as to remove the interconnections between source, gate and drain and leaves the source, gate and drain connection intact.
The term "metal" in the name Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET, is presently somewhat misplaced. In the early days, the gate material was indeed aluminum but nowadays this material is polysilicon (crystalized pure silicon). 
The reason for this change is that polysilicon offers the possibility to fabricate so called "self-aligned" gates. In the conventional fabrication of a metal-gate MOS an additional  photomasking step is necessary to align the gate with the source and drain which have already be formed. An overlap of 0.2 mil is necessary to ensure that the gate extends from the source to the drain regions. This overlap increases the capacitance between gate and source and also between gate and drain. These capacitances lower the speed of operation and increase power consumption.
The so called "self-aligned" MOSFET structure can prevent this problem.
The idea of the "self-aligned" MOSFET encompasses the use of a pre-defined gate which is used as a mask for the diffusion steps. Thus, the gate is already formed before the diffusion of the source and drain takes place, following that, the same mask is used for the diffusion of the source and drain.
The big challenge to use the "self-aligned" structure is the choice of the gate material. To determine this material we first have to look what doping techniques are available. These are diffusion and ion implantation.
Diffusion requires a temperature of 1000°C. Although ion implantation can take place at a much lower temperature (200°C), crystal damages that are caused by the high energy ions have yet to be repaired by using an annealing process which takes place at a temperature of 800°C.
The in the early days (1970-1980) used gate material aluminum will however, at a temperature of 500°C, diffuse into the gate oxide material so one had to search for another gate material.
It appeared now that doped polysilicon was the best choice of material for the gate since it could withstand the high anneal temperature and, moreover, oxidation was as easy as silicon.
Note that the doping of polysilicon is done to increase conductivity.

3.9.3  Complementary MOSFET
It is possible to construct p-channel and an n-channel enhancement MOSFET devices on the same chip. Such devices are called Complementary MOSFETs better known as CMOS devices.
The schematic representation of a CMOS device is shown in figure 18a on the right. As can be seen, the circuit consists of a p-channel MOSFET and an n-channel MOSFET which are internally interconnected in such a way that drain D1 is connected to drain D2. 
The gates G1 and G2 are also internally connected. 
The G1-G2 connection is now connected to an external input voltage Vi while the D1-D2 connection is supposed to be the output terminal Vo.
The input voltage can be between 0V en +VDD. When Vi = 0V then Q1 will be blocked because VGS1 = 0 Volt. However, Q2 will be fully conducting because VGS2 is equal to -VDD.
Because VDS2 = 0V, the output voltage Vo is equal to +VDD
In case the input voltage Vi is equal to +VDD , VGS1 will also be equal to +VDD causing Q1 to be fully conducting. Because VGS2 is now equal to 0 Volt, Q2 will be blocked and hence the output voltage Vo will be 0 Volt.
From the above we can state that the described CMOS device behaves like an inverter.
Figure 18c shows the transfer characteristics of this inverter at three different supply voltages +VDD i.e. 5, 10 and 15Volt.   Fabrication of a CMOS inverter
The fabrication process starts with an n-type substrate into which a p-type "well" or "tub" is diffused. The NMOS transistor Q1 is formed in this p-type well and the PMOS transistor Q2 in the n-type substrate. Figure 18b above shows a simplified structure of this CMOS device.
In reality, this structure is quite different then the simplified version shows, this to prevent "latch-up" at any time.
Latch-up is a state or condition in which the p-MOSFET and the  n-MOSFET are both conducting.
This means in most cases a complete burn-out of the chip.
The question is now, how can such latch-up situation occur? 
To answer this question we take a look at figure 19a in which we have drawn two red colored stray or parasitic transistors Q1 and Q2. We obviously see that the different p and n regions in the CMOS device create the possibility of forming parasitic transistors. 
The emitter of transistor Q1 could be p+ area of the p-MOSFET while the basis of Q1 could be formed by the n- substrate. The collector of Q1 is represented by the p-well. 
An identical configuration can be set-up for transistor Q2. The n+ regions of the n-MOSFET form the emitter of Q2 while the basis of Q2 is formed by the p-well. Finally, the collector of Q2 is formed by the n- substrate. 
The resistor RN- is the resistance from the base of Q1 and the collector of Q2 to VDD . The resistor RP- is the resistance from the collector of Q1 and the base of Q2 to VSS .
This complete parasitic circuit has been schematically represented by figure 19b. In this circuit we can clearly see that latch-up can occur when a voltage spike is injected to VDD or node A.
Application of this voltage spike cause a very small leakage current to flow through the collector of Q1 which in turn produces a base current for transistor Q2.
This base current will turn on Q2 even more and thus increases the base current for Q1 which will also turn on. 
This regenerative process will eventually lead to a full short between VDD and VSS  with the consequence that that the CMOS device will fully be destroyed.
To prevent this latch-up situation, various precautions can be taken. One approach is to keep the source-drain of the p-channel device as far away from the p-well as possible. 
This reduces the β of transistor Q1 and helps to prevent latch-up.
Unfortunately, this is very costly in terms of chip area.
A second approach is to reduce the resistor values of RN- en RP-. Smaller resistor values are helpful because more current has to flow through them in order to forward bias the base-emitter regions of Q1 and Q2.
These resistances can be reduced by surrounding the p-channel devices with a so called n+ guard ring that is connected to VDD and by diffusing a p+ guard ring into the perimeter of the p-well that is connected to VSS .
A third approach is to make a deep p- diffusion guard ring outside of the p-well which is connected to VSS. This will short the collector of Q1 to VSS and hence, cannot deliver base current to Q2. 
The principle of applying guard rings is depicted in figure 20.

Another important consideration of CMOS technology is the electrostatic discharge protection of the gates of transistors which are externally accessible. Static electricity may vary from 2 kVolt to even more than 10 kVolt, depending on the circumstances.
When a CMOS gate comes in direct contact with such a voltage, for instance by touching the leads of an IC, the gate oxide will be damaged instantly.
To prevent accidental destruction of the gate oxide, a resistance and two reverse biased p-n junction diodes are employed to form an input protection circuit. 
Nevertheless, caution must still be taken when working with CMOS devices.
An earthed wrist strap and use of conductive foam or conductive plastic bags in case of packaging material is to be used, is no superfluous luxury

3.10   The future of the chip    (Ref. Technisch Weekblad Februari 2008)
If we take a look at the development of the transistor from the moment of its invention in 1947 till today, we must state that the transistor, and all its derivatives, has gone through en enormous development scenario.
Gordon Moore, co-founder of the Intel chip manufacturer, wrote in 1965 nothing of particular importance when he stated that the complexity of integrated circuits was doubled each two years at minimum cost and that there was no reason to assume that this would change in the next decennium.
Today, everybody knows Moore's law as a proposition that the math power of microprocessors doubles each two years. The law has hold perfectly the last 40 years though it has changed the last years from a prophecy into a business objective for chip manufacturers.
The table below gives an impression of chip development where a remark is to be made that wafer size has increased
drastically from 19 mm in 1959 to 300 mm in 2007.
It is quite conceivable that that this enormous density of transistors poses extreme high requirements on the equipment to fabricate the chip, the waferstepper. 
A modern waferstepper operates simply spoken as follows: The first step is to apply a layer of photosensitive material i.e. photoresist to a thin wafer of pure silicon which can be as large as 12 inches (300 mm) in diameter.
By using a mask that contains the complete lay-out of the chip and by using an optical system that reduces the image on the mask, a laser beam will expose the photoresist layer which will thus takes a copy of the pattern of transistors on the mask.  
Subsequently the waferstepper moves to the wafer in order to repeat the process until the whole wafer is covered with identical chips.
After forming the different layers and intermediate diffusion steps, the wafer is ready to be scribed and separated into individual micro-chips.


Chapter 4   Development of electronic components and their packaging
In the next and last chapter, a photo-session and brief descriptions will be presented to aid in depicting the development of the various electronic components and their packaging during the past decennia.
Parts where no text and explanation is given do speak for themselves.

1  Electron tubes
It is apparent that we start-off with a collection of old electron tubes.
On the far left we see a transmitting tube that was used in a so called vein eraser that was used to clean varicose veins by employing high frequency energy.
Note that the dimensions of the tubes have drastically decreased over the past years.
2  Resistors
This picture shows an extensive collection of resistors. On the far left you see an ancient carbon resistor mounted in an hermetically sealed glass housing.
On the far right you see the today used Surface Mount Devices (SMD) resistors.
Not shown are for instance resistor types such as NTC resistors, VDR resistors, wire wound resistors and variable resistors.

3  Capacitors
This collection of resistors is just a small sample from a very large variety of capacitors.
The three capacitors on the left, next to the gray tubular Philips capacitor, are SMD capacitors.
If you look carefully you will see on the top left that the brownish ceramic capacitor has got the capacitance value indicated in cm (1 cm equals 0.9 pF). Unfortunately, the text on the capacitor is upside down.
4  Electrolytic capacitors
This picture shows a collection of capacitors ranging from an old electrolytic capacitor on the far left to SMD capacitors on the lower right.

5  Coils

6  Rectifiers

7  Relays

8  Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

9  Displays
On the upper left you see a 7-segment display including the segment driver. In the middle you see the well known old nixie tubes from Hewlett Packard and Siemens.
On the right you see some nice examples of the so called VFD (Vacuum Fluorescent Display) displays. These types of display are mainly used in video recorders, DVD recorders, microwave ovens etc. because of their superior brightness and contrast.

10  Crystals

11  Transistors

12  TV Picture tube Electron guns
In this picture we can see the development in television picture tubes and in particular the electron guns. On the far left side we see the classical triangular set-up of the RGB electron guns. Unfortunately, this set-up of the electron guns caused severe converging problems in the formation of the picture. In order to strongly reduce that problem the electron guns were lined-up horizontally which is clearly shown in the picture on the right. 

13  Digital and Linear Integrated Circuits
This picture shows just a very small collection of the enormous variety in digital and linear integrated circuits. Notice the difference in assembly techniques.
Usually, most integrated circuits are intended for commercial use and therefore have the "commercial grade" classification and are encapsulated in plastic. However, in applications that demand high requirements on reliability of the integrated circuit, the devices are mounted in a ceramic packaging. For instance look at op-amp IC LM324 and D/A converter DAC90.

14  Hybrid circuits
This picture shows a summary of various hybrid circuits. On the left we see an implementation of early hybrid technology
in the so called Philips "circuit blocks" in which the components were mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated in silicone rubber or epoxy.
If we click on this picture, we will see a close-up of the circuit blocks.
Nowadays, all components are usually mounted on a substrate of aluminum oxide.
By clicking on this picture, we see a nice close-up of an isolation amplifier hybrid and a DC/DC converter hybrid that even contains a transformer mounted on the substrate.
On the right of this close-up we see some hybrids that were used in implantable pacemakers. Note that the seam welded lids of the hybrids have been removed.
This pacemaker hybrid is a hybrid that was used in the very first dual chamber pacemaker of Medtronic. The pacemaker was a so called ASVIP pacemaker. ASVIP stands for Atrial Sequential Ventricular Inhibited Pacemaker. 
This pacemaker system, that includes two electrodes which are introduced into the heart, is capable of detecting the rhythm of the atrium and the ventricle. 
The very same electrodes are used to stimulate the atrium or the ventricle, or even both.
In a healthy cardiac system, the rhythm of the atrium is determined by the so called SA node (sinoatrial node). The SA node triggers the atrial muscle that contracts (depolarization) and the impulse is conducted to the AV node (atrioventricular node). It is important to note that the impulse is will reach the AV node after a delay of 100-150 ms, this to enable a controlled contraction of the atrium and to give the ventricle the opportunity and time to fill with blood.
AV node triggering evokes another impulse that is further conducted, via the bundle of His, to the ventricle which will contract (depolarization). 
After all cells of the muscle have repolarized, the cycle starts again.
In case of an AV block, conduction to the ventricle is obstructed and the pacemaker will detect this deficiency causing the pacemaker's ventricular output circuit to stimulate the ventricle after a certain delay period. 
In case no signal from the SA node would be detected by the pacemaker, the atrium will be stimulated by the pacemaker's atrial output circuit. The atrium contracts and after normal conduction to the AV node and normal conduction delay through the bundle of His, the ventricle will contract. 
It is worthwhile to mention that all parameters of the pacemaker could be programmed by an external programmer via RF telemetry.
The parameters that could be programmed were: atrial and ventricular stimulation and sensing parameters, A-V delay, refractory time after atrial or ventricular stimulation etc etc.
15  Chip carriers
This picture shows how the individual integrated circuit is mounted in its package which is called the chip carrier.
If we click on this close-up picture of a chip carrier, we clearly can see the wire bonding. Unfortunately, some of the wires have been destroyed during removal of the lid of the carrier.

16  Single chip microprocessors  
On this picture you will see two microprocessors that contain a small circular glass window. These microprocessors are called EPROM microcomputers in which application programs can be loaded.
Such an application program contains a series of instructions stored in program memory within the microcomputer.
The processor in the microcomputer fetches these instructions one at a time and executes the operation indicated.
The application program can be erased by subjecting the chip to ultraviolet light through the glass window. A new application program or an update of an existing program can then be programmed and used again for an other application.

17  Microprocessor Peripheral Devices

18  PC Microprocessor and Controllers 
Further development of the components shown on the picture in paragraph 16 and 17  has ultimately resulted in the realization of the first processors and controllers used in early personal computers (PC).
If we click on this picture, we will see the Pentium MMX chipset.
This picture shows the Pentium4 chipset and the AMD Athlon A0850 processor.

19   4 kByte magnetic core memory
This old magnetic core memory card contains only 4kBytes of memory and has a dimension of 28x42 cm. 
For fun, compare these dimensions with a 2 Gbyte memory bank card in a modern PC.
Here you can see a detailed view of the magnetic cores.

20  RAM memory

21  EPROM memory

22  Data retention media

23  Hard disks

This collection of radios, including the components that did play an important role in the development of electronics, have been stored on my loft and can be identified as a kind of museum.
A short impression of this "museum" is given by the pictures below.
Click on the pictures to show them enlarged in a new window.

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