TABLE

All measurements in this table are based on literature or own measurements (= "collPB" in table). Length is measured without the horns. Width includes possible lateral keels. GT(M)= gestation time (months). LIT=literature.

genus Amblyraja Malm, 1877
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
A. badia (Garman, 1899) - - - - -
A. doellojuradoi (Pozzi, 1935) 86.4 56.2 - - 023
A. frerichsi (Krefft, 1968) - - - - -
A. georgiana (Norman, 1938) 116.5 80 - - 023
A. hyperborea (Collett, 1879) 81-126.3 50-87.2 - - 011,021, 035
A. jenseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
A. radiata (Donovan, 1808) 34-89 23-68 - 13-20 001,002,011,013,020,021,023
Amblyraja radiata the egg-capsule of Amblyraja radiata
A. reversa (Lloyd, 1906) - - - - -
A. robertsi (Hulley, 1970) - - - - -
A. taaf (Meisner, 1987) 20-24 10-12 - - 033
genus Anacanthobatis Von Bonde & Swart, 1923
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
A. americanus Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962 - - - - -
A. borneensis Chan, 1965 - - - - -
A. donghaiensis (Deng, Xiong & Zhan, 1983) - - - - -
A. folirostris Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951 - - - - -
A. longirostris Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962 - - - - -
A. marmoratus (Von Bonde & Swart, 1924) - - - - 026
A. melanosoma (Chan, 1965) - - - - -
A. nanhaiensis (Meng & Li, 1981) - - - - -
A. ori (Wallace, 1967) 36 19 - - 023
A. stenosoma (Chu, Meng & Li, 1982) - - - - -
genus Arhynchobatis Waite, 1909
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
A. asperrimus Waite, 1909 - - - - -
genus Atlantoraja Menni, 1972
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
A. castelnaui (Ribeiro, 1907) 92-103 70-80 - - collPB,023,031
Atlantoraja castlenaui the egg-capsule of Atlantoraja castlenaui
A. cyclophora (Regan, 1903) 62-74 32-48 - - 031
A. platana (Günther, 1880) 66-74 41-47 - - 031
genus Bathyraja Ishiyama, 1958
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
B. abyssicola (Gilbert, 1895) 105.8-113 65.2-73 - - 023,029
B. aguja (Kendall & Radcliffe, 1912) - - - - -
B. aleutica (Gilbert, 1896) 117-136 73-97 - - 017,023,029
B. andriashevi Dolganev, 1985 122-130 55-58 - - 029
B. bergi Dolganev, 1985 106-132 76-86 - - 023,029
B. brachyurops (Fowler, 1910) - - - - -
B. caerulonigricans Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1977 - - - - -
B. diplotaenia (Ishiyama, 1950) 106-120 75.4-78 - - 017,022,023,029
B. eatoni (Günther, 1876) 110-120 - - - 033
B. federovi Dolganev, 1985 75-86 40-48 - - 029
B. griseocauda (Norman, 1937) - - - - -
B. hesperafricana Stehmann, 1995 - - - - -
B. hubbsi Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 - - - - -
B. irassa Hureau & Ozouf-Costaz, 1980 113.8 73.6 - - 023, 033 9-10 cm long
B. isotrachys (Günther, 1877) 64-132 46-86 - - 017,022,029
B. kincaidi (Garman, 1908) 49-59 40-50 6-9 - 004
B. lindbergi Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1977 - - - - -
B. longicauda (De Buen, 1959) - - - - -
B. maccaini Springer, 1971 156.6 80 - - 023
B. maculata Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1977) 97-110 51-66 - - 023,029
B. matsubarai (Ishiyama, 1952) 85-113 52-69 - - 017,023,029
B. meridionalis Stehmann, 1987 - - - - -
B. microtrachys (Osburn & Nichols, 1917) - - - - -
B. minispinosa Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1977 66-80 46-59 - - 023,029
B. notoroensis Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1977 - - - - -
B. pallida (Forster, 1967) c. 300 115-120 - - 024
B. papilionifera Stehmann, 1985 - - - - -
B. parmifera (Bean, 1881) 120-150 88.7-96 - - 022,023,029
B. peruana McEachran & Miyaka, 1984 - - - - -
B. pseudoisotrachys Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 - - - - -
B. richardsoni (Garrick, 1961) 200-208 112-120 - - 024
B. scaphiops (Norman, 1937) - - - - -
B. schroederi (Krefft, 1968) - - - - -
B. shuntovi Dolganev, 1985 87.9 46.6 - - 023
B. simoterus (Ishiyama, 1967) 120 90 - - 017
B. smirnovi (Soldatov & Pavlenko, 1915) 124-150 87.4-90 - - 017,023
B. smithii (Müller & Henle, 1841) - - - - -
B. spinicauda (Jensen, 1914) 115-165 80-102 - - 011,021,025
Bathyraja spinicauda the egg-capsule of Bathyraja spinicauda
B. spinossima (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941) - - - - -
B. trachouros (Ishiyama, 1958) 106-132 76-86 - - 017,023
B. trachura (Gilbert, 1892) 68-74.6 59-61.1 - - 023,029
B. tzinovskii Dolganev, 1985 85 49 - - 029
B. violacea (Suvorov, 1935) 70-132 55-86 - - 023,029,032
genus Breviraja Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
B. claramaculata McEachran & Matheson, 1985 - - - - -
B. colesi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948- - - - -
B. marklei McEachran & Matheson, 1987 - - - - -
B. mouldi McEachran & Matheson, 1995 - - - - -
B. nigriventralis McEachran & Matheson, 1985 - - - - -
B. spinosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950 - - - - -
genus Cruriraja Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
C. andamanica (Lloyd, 1909) - - - - -
C. atlantis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948 - - - - -
C. cadenati Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962 - - - - -
C. durbanensis (Von Bonde & Swart, 1922) - - - - -
C. parcomaculata (Von Bonde & Swart, 1922) 45 24.4 - - 023
C. poeyi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948 - - - - -
C. rugosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958 - - - - -
C. triangularis Smith, 1964 - - - - -
genus Dactylobatus Bean & Weed, 1909
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
D. armatus Bean & Weed, 1909 - - - - -
D. clarcki (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958) - - - - -
genus Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
D. batis (L., 1758) 106-245 50-145 - 40 001,011,012,013,023,027
Dipturus batis the egg-capsule of Dipturus batis
D. bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962) - - - - -
D. chilensis (Guichenot, 1848) - - - - -
D. campbelli (Wallace, 1967) - - - - -
D. crosnieri (Seret, 1989) - - - - -
D. doutrei (Cadanet, 1960) - - - - -
D. equadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941) - - - - -
D. garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958) - - - - -
D. gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) 220-235 140-145 - - 017,023
D. gudgeri (Whitley, 1940) 193 74.8-92.5 - - 035
D. innominatus (Garrick & Paul, 1974) - - - - -
D. johannisdavisi (Alcock, 1899) - - - - -
D. kwantungensis (Chu, 1960) 65 40 - - 023
D. laevis (Mitchill, 1817) 70.8-132 46.2-74 - - 002,006,020,021,023
D. lanceorostratus (Wallace, 1967) - - - - -
D. leptocaudus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1974) - - - - -
D. linteus (Fries, 1838) 107 77 - - 011,021
Dipturus linteus the egg-capsule of Dipturus linteus; from Clarck (1926)
D. macrocaudus (Ishiyama, 1955) 130-146 60-80 - - 017,023
D. nasutus (Müller & Henle, 1841) 102-127 63-83 - - 014,023
D. nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881) 182-260 92-113 - - 011,016,027
D. olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951) - - - - -
D. oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958) - - - - -
D. oxyrhinchus(L., 1758) 120-235 58-120 - - 011,012,027(data correct?)
Dipturus oxyrhinchus the egg-capsule of Dipturus oxyrhinchus
Dipturus oxyrhinchus the egg-capsule of Dipturus oxyrhinchus; from Clarck (1926)
D. pullopunctatus Smith, 1964 - - - - -
D. springeri (Wallace, 1967) - - - - -
D. stenorhynchus (Wallace, 1967) - - - - -
D. teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951) - - - - -
D. tengu (Jordan & Fowler, 1903) 85-100 55-64 - - 017,023
D. trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1974) - - - - -
D. sp. A 55.8-68.8 44.8-53.2 - - 035
D. sp. B 93.2-107.4 50.5-56.9 - - 035
D. sp. L - 53 - - 035
genus Fenestraja McEachran & Compagno, 1982
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
F. atripinna (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
F. cubensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
F. ishiyamai (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962) - - - - -
F. maceachrani Seret, 1989 - - - - -
F. mammillidens (Alcock, 1889) - - - - -
F. plutonia (Garman, 1881) - - - - -
F. sibogae (Weber, 1913) - - - - -
F. sinusmexicanus (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
genus Gurgesiella de Buen, 1959
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
G. atlantica (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962) - - - - -
G. dorsalifera McEachran & Compagno, 1980 - - - - -
G. furvescens du Buen, 1959 - - - - -
genus Irolita Whitley, 1931
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
I. waitei (McCulloch, 1911) 51-76 32-38 - - 014 (=probably Parascyllium variolatum)
genus Leucoraja Malm, 1877
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
L. circularis (Couch, 1838) 83-92 46-53 - - 001,005,011
Leucoraja circularis the egg-capsule of Leucoraja circularis
Leucoraja circularis the egg-capsule of Leucoraja circularis; from Clarck (1926)
L. compagnoi (Stehmann, 1995) - - - - -
L. erinacea (Mitchill, 1825) 46-63 27-48 - 10-35 002,006,013,020,021,023
Leucoraja erinacea the egg-capsule of Leucoraja erinacea
L. fullonica (L., 1758) 75-99 45-60 - - 005,011,012,023,027
L. garmani (Whitley, 1939) 37-54 26-30 - - 009,021,022
Leucoraja garmani
the egg-capsule of Leucoraja garmani
picture by courtesy of John McEachran
L. lentiginosa (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951) - - - - -
L. leucosticta (Stehmann, 1971) - - - - -
L. melitensis (Clarck, 1926) - - - 10-56 013,018
L. naevus (Müller & Henle, 1841) 50-70 31-39 7 70-150 001,005,011,012,013,023
Leucoraja naevus the egg-capsule of Leucoraja naevus
L. ocellata (Mitchill, 1815) 55-99 35-53 22 - 020,021,023 GT(M): pers. com Jim Simon, 11-01-2001
Leucoraja ocellata the egg-capsule of Leucoraja ocellata
L. wallacei (Hulley, 1970) 73 42 - - 023
L. yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
M. kreffti Stehmann, 1978 - - - - -
M. mollis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950) - - - - -
M. senta (Garman, 1885) 50-59 38-45 - - 002,021,023
M. spinacidermis (Barnard, 1923) - - - - -
genus Neoraja McEachran & Compagno, 1982
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
N. africana Stehmann & Seret, 1983 - - - - -
N. caerulea (Stehmann, 1976) - - - - -
N. carolinensis McEachran & Stehmann, 1984 - - - - -
N. stehmanni (Hulley, 1972) - - - - -
genus Notoraja Ishiyama, 1958
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
N. asperula (Garrick & Paul, 1974) 37.3 22 - - 023(as Pavoraja asperula)
N. laxipella (Yearsley & Last, 1992) - - - - -
N. ochroderma McEachran & Last, 1994 - - - - -
N. spinifera (Garrick & Paul, 1974) - - - - -
N. subtilispinosa Stehmann, 1989- - - - -
N. tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) 36-38 22-24.8 - - 017,023
genus Okamejei Ishiyama, 1958
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
O. acutispina (Ishiyama, 1958) 49-54 25-29 - - 017,023
O. australis (Macleay, 1884) 57 32 - - 014
O. boesemani (Ishihara, 1987) 60.6 36.7 - - 023
O. cerva (Whitley, 1939) 68.3-70 29,4-38 - - 015, 035 (as Dipturus)
O. heemstrai (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982) - - - - -
O. hollandi (Jordan & Richardson, 1909) 53-67 27-39 - - 017,022
O. kenojei (Müller & Henle,1841) 47.8-66 29.1-37 - - 017,022,023,029
O. lemprieri (Richardson, 1846) 44-71.4 27.2-40.8 - - 014, 035 (as Dipturus)
Okamejei lemprieri
the egg-capsule of Okamejei lemprieri
picture by Jason Caruso (Melbourne)
O. meerdervoorti (Bleeker, 1860) 34.7-48 24.8-30 - - 022,023
O. philipi (Lloyd, 1906) - - - - -
O. pita (Fricke & Al-Hassan, 1995) - - - - -
O. powelli (Alcock, 1898) - - - - -
O. schmidti (Ishiyama, 1958) 56-60 30.3 - - 017,023
genus Pavoraja Whitley, 1939
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
P. alleni McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982 - - - - -
P. nitida (Günther, 1880) 34.7-57 16.3-44 - - 014,035
genus Psammobatis Günther, 1870
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
P. bergi Marini, 1932 - - - - -
P. extenta (Garman, 1913) 25.7-29.2 16.2-21.1 - - 030
Psammobatis cf extenta the egg-capsule of Psammobatis extenta?
P. lentiginosa McEachran, 1983 - - - - -
P. normani McEachran, 1983 - - - - -
P. parvacauda McEachran, 1983 - - - - -
P. rudis Günther, 1870 56.9 34.1 - - 023
P. rutrum Jordan, 1890 35.4 52.2 - - 023
P. scobina (Philippi, 1857) 52 31.4 - - 023
genus Pseudoraja Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
P. fischeri Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954 - - - - -
genus Raja L., 1758
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. africana Capapé, 1977 - - - - -
R. asterias Delaroche, 1809 45 30 - - 012
Raja clavata egg-capsules of Raja asterias (?) from the Mediterranean Sea, originally identified as small Raja clavata egg-capsules.
R. brachyura Lafont, 1873 100-143 58-90 6-7 40-90 001,011,012,013,018
Raja brachyura the egg-capsule of Raja brachyura
R. clavata L., 1758 50-90 34-68.5 ca. 5 52-170 001,011,012,013,018,023,027
Raja clavata the egg-capsule of Raja clavata
R. herwigi Krefft, 1965 - - - - -
R. maderensis Lowe, 1841 - - - - -
R. microocellata Montagu, 1818 66-100 41-63 8 54-61 001,011,012,013,023
Raja microocellata the egg-capsule of Raja microocellata
R. miraletus L., 1758 42-45.5 27-29.1 - 40-72 010,013,023,026(?),collPB
Raja miraletus the egg-capsule of Raja miraletus
R. montagui Fowler, 1910 53-78 30-49.5 4-6 24-60 001,011,012,013,018,023
Raja montagui the egg-capsule of Raja montagui
R. polystigma Regan, 1923 - - - 20-62 018
R. radula Delaroche, 1809 - - - 80-154 013
R. rondeleti Bougis, 1959 - - - - -
R. straeleni Poll, 1951- - - - -
R. undulata Lacépède, 1802 72-90 42-52 - - 001,011,012
Raja undulata the egg-capsule of Raja undulata
Raja GENUS A "North Pacific Assemblage"
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. binoculata Girard, 1854 228-305 110-194.5 - - 004,008,023,029 [more info]

Raja binoculata

the egg-capsule of R. binoculata
picture by courtesy of Sean van Sommeran
R. cortezensis McEachran & Miyake, 1988 - - - - -
R. inornata Jordan & Gilbert 70-85 65-76 - - 004
R. pulchra Liu, 1932 140-185 70-94 - - 017,022,023,029(as "pulshra")
R. rhina (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) 94-130 54-77 - - 004,008,023,029
Raja rhina
the egg-capsule of Raja rhina
picture by Martin Cadee ©2001
R. stellulata Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 71-78 55-70 - - 004
Raja GENUS B "Amphi-american Assemblage"
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. ackleyi Garman, 1881 - - - - -
R. bahamensis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1964 - - - - -
R. cervigoni Bigelow & Schroeder, 1964 - - - - -
R. eglanteria (Bosc in Lacépède, 1802) 51-89 38-57 - - 006,007,021,023
Raja eglanteria
the egg-capsule of Raja eglanteria
picture by Martin Cadee ©2001
R. equatorialis Jordan & Bollman, 1890 - - - - -
R. texana Chandler, 1921 63 38 - - 003
R. velezi Chririchigno, 1973 - - - - -
Raja GENUS C "Western Pacific Species"
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. koreana Jeong & Nakabo, 1997 - - - - -
R. polyommata Ogilby, 1910 - - - - -
R. whitleyi Iredale, 1938 220 119.6-138.3 - - 035 (as Dipturus)
genus Rajella Stehmann, 1972
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. alia (Garman, 1899) - - - - -
R. anandalei (Weber, 1913) - - - - -
R. barnardi (Norman, 1935) - - - - 026
R. bathyphila (Holt & Byrne, 1908) - - - - -
R. bigelowi (Stehmann, 1978) 53 29.9 - - 023
R. caudaspinosa (Von Bonde & Swart, 1923) - - - - -
R. dissimilis (Hulley, 1970) - - - - -
R. fuliginea (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954) 125 75 - - 023(as Malacoraja fuliginea)
R. fyllae (Lütken, 1888) 38-42 24-26 - - 001,011,021(after Nordgaard, 1925)
Rajella fyllae the egg-capsule of Rajella fyllae
R. kukujevi (Dolganov, 1985) - - - - -
R. leopardus (Von Bonde & Swart, 1923) 74 74.5 - - 023
R. nigerrima (De Buen, 1960) - - - - -
R. purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962) - - - - -
R. ravidula (Hulley, 1970) - - - - -
R. sadowskyi (Krefft & Stehmann, 1974) - - - - -
genus Rhinoraja Ishiyama, 1952
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. albomaculata (Norman, 1937) - - - - -
R. interrupta (Gill & Townsend, 1897) 49-83.8 40-69 - - 023(as Bathyraja interrupta),029
R. kujiensis (Tanaka, 1916) 104-115 69-80 - - 017,023,029
R. longi Raschi & McEachran, 1991 - - - - -
R. longicauda Ishiyama, 1952 56-85 36-48 - - 017,023,029
R. macloviana (Norman, 1937) - - - - -
R. magellanica (Philippi, 1902) - - - - -
R. multispinis (Norman, 1937) - - - - -
R. murrayi (Günther, 1880) 59.8 33.6 - - 023(as Bathyraja murrayi), 033 11x6 cm (total length) measured
R. obtusa Ishiyama, 1952 - - - - -
R. odai Ishiyama, 1958 56.8-68 31.5-46 - - 017,023,029
R. rosispinis (Gill & Townsend, 1897) - - - - -
R. taranetzi Dolganev, 1985 67.3 46.6 - - 023
genus Rioraja Whitley, 1939
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. agassizi (Müller & Henle, 1841) 41-56 22-36 - - 034 (total length)
genus Rostroraja Hulley, 1970
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
R. alba (Lacépède, 1803) 125-183.3 100-138.6 15-18 55-156 001,011,012,018,019,023,026
Rostroraja alba the egg-capsule of Rostroraja alba
genus Sympterygia Müller & Henle, 1841
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
S. acuta Garman, 1877 45-50 27-33 - - 028
S. bonapartei Müller & Henle, 1841 81 46.1 - - 023
S. brevicauadata (Cope, 1877) - - - - -
S. lima (Poeppig, 1835) - - - - -
other measurements from literature
species length(mm) width(mm) GT(M) #eggs/y LIT
Raja dentata Klunzinger, 1872 44 32 - - 014
R. dentata = Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson, 1846)
Raja diaphanes Mitchill, 1803 75-86 44-52 - - 002,006
R. diaphanes = Leucoraja ocellata (Mitchill, 1815)
Raja fusca Garman, 1885 52-56 33-36 - - 017,022
R. fusca = Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle,1841)
Raja macrophtalma Ishiyama, 1958 29-42 25 - - 017,022
R. macrophtalma = Okamejei meerdervoorti (Bleeker, 1860)
Raja porosa Günther, 1874 43-59 29-37 - - 017
R. porosa = Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle, 1841)
Raja scabrata Garman, 1913 77-90 58-73 - - 002
R. scabrata = Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)

Any comments or additions can be sent to Peter Bor


LITERATURE


001 Bor, P.H.F., 1998. Eikapsels van haaien en roggen. Wetenschappelijke Mededeling K.N.N.V. no. 223: 48 pp..
002 Vladykov, V.D., 1936. Capsules d'oeufs de raies de l'atlantique canadien au genre raja. Le naturaliste canadien vol. 63 (8+9): 211-231.
003 Springer, S., 1939. The egg case of the texas skate. Copeia 4: 237.
004 Cox, K.W., 1963. Egg-cases of some elasmobranchs and a cyclostome from californian waters. California fish and game 49 (4): 271-289.
005 Desbrosses, P., 1931. Note sur l'oeuf de la raie chardon Raja fullonica L.. Bulletin de la société zoologique de France 1931: 15-18.
006 Breder, C.M. & J.T. Nichols, 1937. the eggs of Raja eglanteria Bosc, with a key to the shells of New York species. Copeia 1937 no. 3; 181-184.
007 Breder, C.M. & J.W. Atz, 1938. Further notes on the eggs of Raja eglanteria Bosc.. Copeia 1938 no. 3: 145-146.
008 DeLacey, A.C. & W.M. Chapman, 1935. Notes on some elasmobranchs of Puget Sound, with descriptions of their egg cases. Copeia 1935 no. 2: 63-67.
009 McEachran, J.D., 1970. Egg capsule and reproductive biology of the skate Raja garmani (Pisces: Rajidae). Copeia 1970 no. 1: 197-199.
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017 Ishiyama, R., 1967. Fauna Japonica. Rajidae (Pisces): pp. I-VI, 1-84, plates 1-32.
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pictures of the egg-capsules of Dipturus linteus, D. oxyrhinchus and Leucoraja circularis taken from:
Clarck, R.S., 1926. Rays and skates. A revision of the European species. Fish. Board Scotland Sci. Invest. 1926, no. 1: pp. 1-66, 36 plates.