Apollo 11, landing op de maan

Wat er vooraf ging:
Nadat Armstrong en Aldrin zich met de Maanlander Eagle hebben ontkoppeld van commandomodule Columbia hebben ze een remvuurstoot uitgevoerd waardoor de maanlander in een ruime boog naar beneden is gaan vallen. De valboog die de maanlander heeft ingezet is een ellips met het laagste punt op 15 kilometer hoogte.

Tijdens de val loopt de snelheid op en zonder verdere actie zou de vliegbaan weer oplopen naar de 100 km hoogte waar men vandaan kwam. Om verder te dalen moet de LM dus opnieuw afgeremd worden. Dit is de aangedreven afdaling, de powered descent.


Op ongeveer 6 km hoogte verglijkt de boordcomputer de hoogte boven de grond met de landingsradar die onder de maanlander gemonteerd zit. Als Aldrin de de computer vraagt om het hoogteverschil te laten zien tussen de berekende hoogte en de gegevens van de radar gaat het bijna mis.....

 

De hoofdrolspelers:

Neil Armstrong, 39 jaar, Astronaut staat achter de stuurknuppel van de maanlander.

Buzz Aldrin, 39 jaar, Astronaut bedient de besturingscomputer.
Gene Kranz,35 jaar,Flight Director is de vluchtleider van Mission Control tijdens de landing.
Steve Bales, 26 jaar, Guidance Officer is van het team flightcontrollers de computer-specialist.
Overige specialisten (flightcontrollers) van Mission Control.
Charlie Duke, 33 jaar,Capcom geeft de aanwijzingen van Mission Control door aan de astronauten.

 

Klik hier om de (mp3) geluidsband te starten

 

Linker geluidskanaal:
Mission Control interne communicatie

 
Rechter geluidskanaal:
Communicatie Mission Control - Eagle
OK, all flightcontrollers, I am going around the horn. Make your GO/NO-GO's based on the data you had prior to LOS   I think its gonna drop
I'll see we've got it back, give you another few seconds    

OK,Retro? GO! Fido? GO! Guidance? GO! Control? GO! Telcom? GO! GNC? GO! Eecom? GO! Surgeon. GO!

   
Capcom, we are GO to continu PDI   Eagle? Houston. You are GO
Skip the talk. I need your best call
Roger Flight
  You are GO to continu Powered Descent, you are GO to continu Powered Descent.
Eagle krijgt toestemming om door te gaan met de aangedreven afdaling
OK everybody, let's hang tight, let's look for the landing radar    
Flight? Guidance. Go Guidance.
We need that landing radar at 18000 feet with this down track. At the PNGS
Roger, I copy Guidance
  Eagle? Houston. We got data dropouts, you are still looking good
OK, we've got data back.
Radar, Flight, looks good. 2000 feet.
OK 2000 foot to L-H
  We've got good lock-on
We wanna know when it accepts it, Guidance   Altitude light is out.

Looks good, Flight! Looks good
Is it accepting it Guidance?

Stand by

 

Delta-H is -2900. Roger, we copy.
Thats the Earth, right out of our front window.
Houston, you are looking to our delta-H?

That's affirmative!.
Programm alarm!
Its looking good to us.
It's 1202, 1202.

De computer geeft een verschil in hoogte (delta-H) aan van 2900 voet, maar ook het 1202 alarm
Looks like it's converging.
12....1202 alarm.
Yeah, its the same thing we had.
   
Flight?, Retro. Go, Retro. Trottle down! 6+25. 6+25   Give us a reading on the 1202 program alarm!
We'll GO on that, Flight. We are GO on that alarm?   Roger. You..., we are GO on that alarm
If it doesn't reoccur we'll be GO, He is taking in the delta-H    
Did you get the trottle down, Capcom?   6+25 trottle down, 6+25 trottle down!

Flight?, Fido. Converging on delta-H. Rog
Flight?, Control. We have got velocity. Rog

  You copy? 6+25
    Same alarm, and it appears to cum up when we have a 1668 up
Roger, copy
Na 6 min. 25 sec. neemt de rem-stuwkracht af. De computer moet het hoogteverschil geleidelijk gaan wegwerken. 1668 is de code waarbij delta-H op het display verschijnt.
Ok, we will monitor his delta-H, Flight. I think thats what he is getting at. And his alarms. Delta-H is beautiful   Eagle, we'll monitor your delta-H beautifuly
Delta-H is looking good to us
OK flightcontrollers, hang tight. We should be trotteling down pretty shortly. We have trottle down. Confirm trottle down.   I can feel its trottle down, better as in the simulator. Rog
How is it looking Guidance?    
Don't you want to stay out of 68
Negative. Flight, I just said we'll monitor the alarms. OK
Flight?, Guidance.
Go Guidance.
The noun 68 may well may be the problem here.And we can monitor delta-H.

   
Mission Control let nu op de delta-H, daardoor hoeft Aldrin er de computer niet meer naar te vragen, want die valt dan onmiddelijk in storing
Flight, Fido. Looking real good. Rog Fido, good   At 7 minutes you are looking great to us , Eagle
Capcom. how you're looking? I'm good flight    
    Ok, I am slill on SLEW but we may tend to lose as we gradually pitch over. Let me try AUTO again, now see what happens. Roger.
Going to try steerable again, Don? . Copy Flight   It looks like it's holding. Roger we've got good data
We are on steerable Don? That's affirmative Flight, and it is holding there pretty good. Rog.    
Kranz vraagt aan TELCOM Don Puddy om weer over te schakelen op de sterkere bestuurbare richtantenne om de data naar aarde te zenden.
Ok everybody, hang tight. 7 and a 1/2 minutes.
Flight, Guidance. The landing radar is fixed, the velocity is beautiful.
Rog.
Flight, Control. Decent 2 fuel. Decent 2 fuel crit.
Decent 2 fuel only! Not critical. He didn't want to say critical.
Rog. Decent 2 fuel
  Eagle, Houston. Its decent 2 fuel to monitor. Over.
    Going to 2
Decent 2 fuel is een andere manier van meten van de resterende brandstof-vooraad. Door het klotsen in de tank en het gebruik van een Low-bit datakanaal werd Descent 1 fuel steeds onnauwkeuriger.
Flight, Fido. Looking real good. Rog   Give us an estimated pitch-over time please, Houston.
    Roger. Standby. You're looking great at 8 minutes.
You got an estimated...? What's our T-GO Guidance?
30 seconds till P64.
Rog. 30 seconds
  Eagle, you got 30 seconds to P-64. Good
OK, we still got landing radar, Guidance? Thats right.
OK, has it converged? Looks beautiful.
Has it converged? Yes! OK.
Flight, Fido. We're GO, look real good. Rog Fido.
   
   

Eagle, Houston. Comming up 8:30, you're looking great.


P-64!

OK, they got 64.   We copy
De boordcomputer schakelt over op Programma 64, het laatste stuk van de landing. De stuwstraal wordt dan steeds meer naar de grond gericht op de daalsnelheid te verlagen. T-Go is "Time to go": de resterende tijd vergeleken met het vluchtplan.
T-GO is good. Rog, T-GO's go.
We have position 2 on their alarm. Rog, position 2.
All flightcontrollers, 20 seconds to GO/NO-GO for landing
  Eagle, you're looking great. Coming up 9 minutres.
OK, all flightcontrollers. GO/NO-GO for landing.
Retro?
GO! Fido? GO! Guidance? GO! Control? GO! Telcom? GO! GNC? GO! Eecom? GO! Surgeon. GO!
Capcom, we are GO for landing
.
 

Manual attitude control is good. Roger, copy.

Eagle, you are GO for landing.

    OK, I understand. Go for landing. 3000 feet.
Progamm alarm.
1201, 1201.
Roger, 1201 alarm.
1201 alarm.
Same type, we're GO Flight. OK, we're GO
  We're GO. Same type. We're GO
Flight, Fido. Right on, real good   2000 feet, 2000 feet!
    Give me an LPD.
Into the AGS, 47 degrees.
Roger. 47 degrees.
Weer is de computer overbelast (1201). Armstrong vraagt Aldrin de LPD waarde. Dat is het punt waar de computer wil landen. "47" zegt het display. Door langs een gradenboog in zijn voorruit te kijken (47 graden) ziet Armstrong waar ze gaan uitkomen. Als daar rotsen of kraters zijn moet hij overgaan op handbesturing.
How's our margin looking , Bob? It looks OK, we got four and a half. Altitute up in the AGS, looks good.   Eagle. Looking great, you're GO
   

1202
Roger. 1202, we copy you

How your doing, Control? We look good here. Rog, how about you, Telcom? GO. Guidance, you 're happy? GO! Fido? GO!   35 degrees. 35 degrees. 750. Coming down at 23
    700 feet, 21 down, 33 degrees.
    600 feet, down at 19.
    540 feet, down at.... Down at 15.
Aldrin leest steeds de hoogte (bijv. 700 voet), de daalsnelheid (down at 19) en de voorwaartse snelheid op.
Attitude hold. Ok, ATT hold
I think we better be quiet by now.
Rog.
  Ok, 400 feet, down at 9.
Ok, the only call-outs from now on will be fuel.   58 forward.
    350 feet, down at 4.
P66 !   330, 3 1/2 down.
    Ok, you're pegged on horizontal velocity.
Vanaf dit moment (P66) zweeft de maanlander op ongeveer 100 meter hoogte boven de maan en wordt er op handbedining een geschikte landingsplaats gezocht. Met de stuurknuppel wordt links-rechts en voor-achter gestuurd en met een andere hendel wordt de daalsnelheid met 1 voet/sec. verhoogd of verlaagd.
    300 feet , down 3 1/2 , 47 forward. Slow it up.
    1 1/2 down.
    270.
    250. Down at 2 1/2, 15 forward.
Ok, Bob. I'll be standing by for your call-out shortly   Altitude velocity lights
    3 1/2 down, 220 feet, 13 forward.
    11 forward. Coming down nicely. 200 feet.
    4 1/2 down. 5 1/2 down
    160 feet, 6 1/2 down.
    5 1/2 down, 9 forward.
Low level. Low level   Looks good.
    120 feet
    100 feet, 3 1/2 down, 9 forward.
Five percent. Quantity light.
    Ok. 75 feet. And it's looking good.
Down a half, 6 forward.
Coming up 60. Rog. 60!. 60 seconds   60 seconds!
Vanaf het moment dat het Quantity light gaat branden is de brandstof-nivo meting niet meer betrouwbaar en wordt de nog resterende brandstof in seconden afgeteld.
    Lights on!
Down 2 1/2
    Forward, forward
    43 feet, down 2 1/2
    Picking up some dust
    30 feet, 2 1/2 down. Faint shadow.
De schaduw van de maanlander valt op het maanoppervlak
    4 forward. 4 forward. Drifting to the right a little.
20 feet, down a half.
30. 30 seconds   30 seconds
    Contact light!
De 2 meter lange voelsprieten raken de grond, het Contact Light gaat branden
    Ok, engine stop. ACA out of detent.
    Mode Control, both Auto.
Descent Engine Command Override, Off.
Engine Arm, Off.
413 is in.
De daalmotor wordt uitgeschakeld. De stuurknuppel (ACA) ook. Via adres 413 van de computer wordt de hoogte ingevoerd (0 voet boven de grond).
We 've had shutdown   We copy you down Eagle
OK, everybody. T1. Standby for T1.   Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.
    Roger, Tranquility. We copy you on the ground.
You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue.
We're breathing again. Thanks a lot.
    Thank you!
    You're looking good here.
    We're going to be busy for a minute.
    Master Arm, On. Take care of the descent vent.
Ok, all flightcontrollers. About 45 seconds to T1. STAY / NO-STAY.    
Flight? Go, Guidance. That 14+2 looks beautiful.   Very smooth touchdown.
OK, keep the chatter down in this room.    
OK, T1. STAY / NO-STAY.    
Retro? STAY! Fido? STAY! Guidance? STAY! Control? STAY! Telcom? STAY! GNC? STAY! Eecom? STAY! Surgeon. STAY!    
Capcom, we' re STAY for T1    
T1 is 1 minuut na de landing. Mission Control bepaald of er niet onmiddelijk weer opgestegen moet worden. (T2 is 8 minuten en T3 is 3 uur na de landing).
    It looks like we're venting the oxidizer now
    Roger. Eagle, and you are STAY for T1
Flight, Control. Go Control. We are venting off.
Roger, venting off
  Eagle, you are STAY for T1
    Roger. Understand, Stay for T1.
    And we see you're venting the Ox
Pyro's are safe. Rog.