Access to a pure physical understanding of gravitation

A sneaky danger is threatening physics with inconceivable phenomena.
Measuring the outside of things is not enough any more. The developing of new physics
needs an idea about the inside of the basic particles, which cannot be measured.
From the beginning the development of physics happened by studying matter, or parts of it,
from the outside. In the 19th century the observation of the basic particle of electricity left
behind its fair-character, but not its inconceivableness, or more specific, the way on which
that particle managed the exertion of force at a distance.Its inside stayed unknown.
The second group of basic particles, that of nucleons, was just inaccessible as the first
one, though the influence of the proton on the electron could be studied from the outside.
At this point, however, the basic study of matter is threatening to go wrong. The inside structure
of protons, and also that of neutrons, must be seen as being the most complicated motion-
structure of the universe, because all structures of matter may be reduced to the proton structure.
Therefore, the shooting of electrons on neutrons, resulting in three points of reflection (quarks)
cannot be a reliable action. It does tell us nothing about the happenings inside, nor could it be
made understandable by using words instead of mathematics.
There must be an alternative way of handling the problems, namely using our imagination to find
a possible mean structure of the basic particles. Our trial uses the following assumtions:
- Protons exist of a big number of electrons and positrons (ec's), but have one electron less
- elementary charges exist of an incredible number of energons or powerparticles (pp's,
comparable to the Higgs-particle), which can have opposite angular momentums, and will be
expelled with an even incredible number (creation!). Those particles possess a spread of velocity
which causes a time of convergence (delta-t) related to the distance between sender and receptor.
These assumptions lead to unexpected simple mean models, using also the known properties
found by outside measuring of the basic particles. 1- with the use of the delta-t perception, in
combination with the known forces between ec's, two formulas were found describing the course
of forces, exerted between moving ec's, which could stand double-checking (Chapters 3-4).
2- also double-checked, it could be proved that neutrons exist of 931 positrons and 931 electrons,
whirling around with a mean relative velocity of 0.7413.c; protons exist of 930 positrons and 929
electrons with a relative velocity of 0.7399.c.(Chapter 5). 3- from the proton-structure could be
proved that the total types of charge-hidings (conjunctions) amounts to 2.1036 x 10^7 which
makes a complex pattern of pulses around the proton. The chance on an permanent conjunction
is 0.0821 to 1. From this approach gravitation could be calculated as being an influence of a
reduced part of one electron-spin per nucleon (Chapter 6). 4- the durance of a full range of
conjunction-types has been calculated on tr = 1.2356 x 10^-18 s, which means that multiplication
of tr with c gives 7.00000 times the lowest radius of the electron-orbit (Chapter 8). That brings the
orbiting time, ts = 1.5198 x 10^-16 s, in relaton with the fine structure constant
(alpha = 7.2973 x 10^-3), but also with the number tr:
7 x ts / tr = 2 pi / alpha = 861.
This relation makes 2 pi / alpha redundant.

Please, click on the underlined chapter-names to read the whole story.

New look at physical forces -
a test of an alternative model

0.Title-page; Preface; Index
1.Introduction, theses and consequences
2.The fundament of forces
3.The exchange of forces between elementary charges-1st test
4.Forces between electric currents in conductors- 2nd test
5.Consequences of a nucleonic ec-structure- 3rd test
6.Gravitation, as a result of a nucleonic ec-structure- 4th test
7.The period of pulsation of the elementary charges
8.Relation between the new proton-model and the QM-model-5th test
9.Dimension of energons and cosmological consequences
10.The transmission of EM-signals by energon waves
11.The physical space
12.Some data, obtained from the energon-hypothesis
15.A sketch of the Universe

Results of the tests:

-The emission by ec's of pp's with angular momentum looks inevitable.
-Calculations of forces between currents in wires match with known data.
-Neutrons filled with equal amounts of opposite charges are possible.
-Gravitation can be seen as partly neutralized ec-spins in nucleonic structures.
-The time needed for the total amount of possible charge-conjunctions in protons
· is exactly 7 times the smallest orbiting period in the H-atom, divided by 861.

"We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them"
Albert Einstein.

Version 2016. Not for commercial purpose.
Copyright © H.A.van Keulen -
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