Ten Hage (also Ten Hagen and Tenhagen)
For younger generations of ancestors who are descended from this family:
|see page on||Rauws|
|see page on||Hanedoes|
|see page on||Van der Dussen|
|see page on||Van der Graaff|
This family probably came from Turnhout in present-day Belgium. There used to be a farm called the "Ten Hagehoeve" in
Turnhout, which still existed in 1663 but later was demolished. The family must have moved to the north, to Woudrichem in
"het Land van Altena", east of Dordrecht and south of Gorinchem, see map. Before Abraham's
arrival the family name Ten Hage was unknown in Woudrichem.
With the Ten Hage family, a peculiarity arises in our tree for the first time. We are descended from all three children of Abraham Dircksz. ten Hage and Bertruyt van Clootwijck. Strange as it may seem, Johanna ("Jenneke") ten Hage (# 2439) and her brother Dirck ten Hage (# 2440) are both eleven generations back, counting from ourselves, while their brother Adriaen ten Hage (# 1226) is only ten generations removed from us. Therefore, their parents Abraham Dircksz. ten Hage and Bertruyt van Clootwijck belong to different generations at the same time, counting back from us, and so do all their earlier ancestors from all related families.
? ten Hage (?-?)
(See 13, 12 generations back)
Dirck ten Hage
(4 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,061 %)
* 1510? (Turnhout?) x ? (wife unknown, married around 1540?) + ?
(Not known if any other children)
Dirck ten Hage (1550?-?)
(See 12, 11 generations back)
Abraham Dircksz. ten Hage
(4 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,12 %)
* ? x Bertruyt van Clootwijck (married around 1570?) + 1627?
Abraham was "schout" in Woudrichem, "hoogheemraad" of the "Land van Altena". Because of the plague-epidemic, Abraham and Bertruyt had their last will registered on 11-9-1625 at "notaris" Muyter in Giessen.
(Not known if any other children)
Abraham Dircksz. ten Hage (?-1627?)
and Bertruyt van Clootwijck (?-?)
(See 11, 10 generations back)
1. Johanna ("Jenneke") ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,049 %)
* 1575? x Jacob Jacobsz. van der Dussen (13-7-1597) + 8-9-1641
For her descendants see the page on Van der Dussen
2. Dirck ten Hage
(2 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,098 %)
* 3-9-1580 (Woudrichem) x Heijltje Erckelens (1600?) + 3-8-1625 (Woudrichem)
In August and September 1625 Woudrichem was hit by the plague, which is very likely to have caused the deaths of Dirck, Heijltje, and two of their three children.
For Dirck's descendants see below.
3. Adriaen ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,098 %)
* 1580? x I. Judith Johansd. Schellaert (around 1610) II. Elysabeth van Eck (1639) + 1654
Adriaen was "burgemeester" (1639) and "ouderling" in Woudrichem
Adriaen ten Hage (1580?-1654?)
and Judith Johansd. Schellaert (?-?)
(See 9 generations back)
1. Bertruyd ten Hage
* ? x Adriaen Dingemansz. van Oversteegh (1636) + ?
2. Johan ten Hage
* 1615? x Cornelia Verhorst (Sleeuwijk 9-1-1649) + 1650
Johan was "adelborst" in Captain Winteroy's company; "heer" of Sleeuwijk from 1638 until his death in 1650.
Johan's wife was the widow of Jan de Wolf, a former "burgemeester". She had two children by her first husband, a son Dirk and a daughter Arieken (= Eercken?), who probably became Johan's sister-in-law, see below. Johan died in the year after his marriage, he and Cornelia did not have any children together.
3. Abraham ten Hage
* ? x Agatha Cloots + 1655?
Abraham was "burgemeester" of Woudrichem.
4. Dirck ten Hage
* ? x Eercken (= Arieken?) de Wolf + 1661
Dirck became "heer" of Sleeuwijk in 1655. Dirck's wife was probably the daughter of his sister-in-law Cornelia Verhorst, see above.
5. Adriaen ten Hage
* ? x Wijnanda Abrahamsdr. van der Steen (Woudrichem 18-11-1655)+ ?
After the death of his brother Dirck, Adriaen became "heer" of Sleeuwijk in 1661 which he remained until 1676.
6. Judith Adriaensd. ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,195 %)
* 7-12-1631 (Woudrichem) x Gabriel Hanedoes (1-8-1652) + ?
For her descendants see the page on Hanedoes
Dirck ten Hage (1580-1625)
and Heijltje Erckelens (?-1625)
(See 10 generations back)
1. Johan Dircksz. ten Hage
(2 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,195 %)
* ? x Johanna (Jenneke) Swaen (Woudrichem 13-6-1631) + ? (after 12-12-1683)
Johan was the only one of his family to survive the plague which probably killed both his parents as well as his brother and sister, one after the other, in August / September 1625. Johan became "hoogdijkheemraad" of Altena, "burgemeester" of Woudrichem, and was several times "ouderling" in the period 1641-1662.
2. Abraham ten Hage
* ? + 7-9-1625
3. Cornelia ten Hage
* ? + 4-9-1625
Johan Dircksz. ten Hage (?-1650)
and Johanna ("Jenneke") Swaen (?-1650)
(See 9 generations back)
1. Heijltgien ten Hage
* 26-9-1632 + ?
Heijltgien was obviously named after her grandmother Heijltje Erckelens.
2. Dirck ten Hage
* 2-10-1633 + before 1638?
3. Dirck ten Hage
* 7-10-1638 + before 1642?
4. Cornelia ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,195 %)
* 7-4-1640 x Joannis (Jan) van der Graaff (Woudrichem 14-6-1662) + 1727
For her descendants see the page on Van der Graaff.
5. Dirck ten Hage
* 9-2-1642 + before 1645?
6. Helena ten Hage
* 19-4-1643 x Herman Gerardsz. van Breugel + ?
Helena's husband was "advocaat" and "schepen" in 's-Hertogenbosch
7. Dirck Jansz. ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,195 %)
* 5-3-1645 x Anna Maria Sonnemans (around 1682) + 21-5-1718
Dirck was "president burgemeester" of Woudrichem, "substituut baljuw", "dijkgraaf" of Woudrichem and the "Land van Altena". He was the guardian of our orphaned sixth great-grandfather Cornelis Rauws. Cornelis was related to the Ten Hage family through his grandfather Cornelis Swaen, the brother of Johanna ("Jenneke") Swaen, who was Dirck ten Hage's mother. In 1704, Dirck also became Cornelis' father-in-law when Cornelis married his daughter Johanna Catharina ten Hage, see below.
8. Bertruda ten Hage
* 14-4-1647 x I. Hendrick Antoni van Nispen II. Hendrik van Breugel + ?
9. Catharina ten Hage
* 26-9-1649 + ? (before 1702)
Dirck Jansz. ten Hage (1645-1718)
and Anna Maria Sonnemans (1645-1735?)
(See 8 generations back)
1. Jan ten Hage
* 12-12-1683 + ? (before 23-11-1734)
Jan must have died before his mother made her last will on 23-11-1734, because he is not mentioned in it.
2. Johanna Catharina ten Hage
(1 times our ancestor, blood-relationship 0,39 %)
* 1684/1685 x Cornelis Rauws ('s-Gravenmoer 18-11-1704) + 11-10-1740 (Woudrichem)
After only five years of marriage, Johanna became a widow at the age of about 24 with three infant children. She never remarried. At the time of her mother's death, probably early 1735, Johanna Catharina was blind. It seems strange that she inherited litte of her mother's rich possessions, and that most of it went to her youngest brother Jacob, see below.
For her descendants see the page on Rauws.
3. Arend Jacob ten Hage
* 4-11-1685 + 7-9-1740
Arend Jacob, although he was apparently able to read and put his signature, may have been ill or (mentally) handicapped, because his brother Jacob took care of his affairs and became his sole (self-appointed?) heir, see next.
4. Jacob ten Hage
* 15-2-1688 x Neeltje Bijl + 1772
As "schout" and "schepen" in Woudrichem, Jacob was an important figure. The fact that he, as the youngest child, ended up with most of his mother Anna Maria Sonnemans' rich possessions is very unusual. Johanna Catharina, the eldest, received two houses and about 23 "morgen" of land and that was it. Jacob inherited six houses initially plus agricultural lands with a total surface of more than 40 "morgen", as well as a considerable amount of jewellery, silver objects and bonds. Jacob's (mentally handicapped?) brother Arend Jacob inherited eight houses, over 32 "morgen" of land and the rest of the jewellery and silver. Arend Jacob's affairs were apparently being managed by his brother Jacob, and after Arend Jacob's death, all of his inheritance went to Jacob and absolutely nothing to his Johanna Catharina or her children. The reasons for this unequal treatment are unknown, all that we know for certain is based on the four remaining original documents in the archives:
Anna Maria Sonnemans' last will and the official declaration added to it
In November 1734 Anna Maria Sonnemans had her new will officially deposited, a document which consisted of 28 pages, listing all her personal possessions. Her late husband Dirck Jansz. ten Hage's possessions had already been divided at the time of his death in 1718. Also dated 23-11-1734 and in the same handwriting (Jacob's?) is a declaration which was signed by three "schepenen" of Woudrichem: Adriaan Hanedoes Junior, Johan Roos, and Adriaan van der Touw; stating that Anna Maria Sonnemans had appeared before them, presenting her last will, which was read aloud and signed in their presence. Jacob may not have been there himself; just the signatures of his three collegues were put under the declaration. The two documents were then sewed together and closed with wax seals in six places. Anna Maria, aged 89 or 90, was already very near the end of her life, but the town officials seem to have had no reasonable doubt as to Anna Maria's intentions or her mental health at the time. However, it seems likely that they were personally selected by their "schout" Jacob, and that they had no intention to ask awkward questions. Still, there is a puzzling last sentence in Anna Maria's will, in the same handwriting as the rest (Jacob's?), which was apparently added after she had read the document (or after it had been read to her) for the first time. It states that she retracts the passage earlier on the same page where a "fideï commis" is attached to Arend Jacob's inheritance, which limited his rights to just the proceeds and excluded the right to sell or give away any of it. This proves that the will was originally written (designed?) by someone else (Jacob?), but the retraction of the "fideï commis" seems to be an indication that Anna Maria must have understood at least this part of the document. (Or, if one would prefer the darkest possible scenario: it had deliberately been added by Jacob to create the false impression that his mother's mind was still clear at that time, which would be a very virtuoso flourish in an intricate but evil orchestration.)
The request by Jacob and his brother Arend Jacob
The next document is dated 9-2-1735, which must have been written very shortly after the death of Anna Maria Sonnemans. It is a request (again in Jacob's handwriting?), signed by Jacob and his brother Arend Jacob, as well as by their lawyer Martinus Mekern ("procureur voor dit gerecht"), asking "schout" and "schepenen" of Woudrichem - or their representatives - to be present personally at the opening of the sealed documents, which would be held at the courthouse or another "neutral place", at a time to be determined by them, and that Jacob, Arend Jacob, and Johanna Catharina were to be officially informed about the procedure and the time and place. In case any of Anna Maria's children were not to appear, it was requested that the opening of the documents should continue anyway. Afterwards, all concerned were to be officially informed about the outcome. As the reason for the request is given that this procedure would prevent or settle any discussion or conflict about Anna Maria's last will, which Jacob - understandably - expected from the side of Johanna Catharina and her son Pieter Rauws as soon as they would learn about the contents officially.
The request by Johanna Catharina
The brothers' request must have been granted, because the next relevant document (undated) is a reaction from Johanna Catharina to the official notification. Because of her blindness it was signed by her son Pieter Rauws. In Johanna Catharina's (and Pieter's) request, great care was taken to avoid the impression that Anna Maria's will itself and the added offical declaration were contested in any way, or the legality of the way it had been oficially deposited. The request was made to "schout" and "schepen" of Woudrichem that the opening of the documents be held at Anna Maria's home, instead of a "neutral place". Even before Anna Maria's death, Johanna Catharina and Pieter would already have known the contents of her will, see next, but it could not yet be contested because it was still sealed at that moment. And Pieter must already have realised that his uncle Jacob had carefully devised a watertight procedure which could never be challenged successfully before the town administrators.
The testimony of Anna Maria Sonnemans' housemaids
We do not know where or when exactly the will was opened, but it must have been not long before 19-3-1735, because the final surviving document about this affair bears this date. It is a declaration signed by Cornelis van Eeten and Dirck van Dam, two "schepenen" of Woudrichem who had not been present at the deposition of Anna Maria's will on 23-11-1734, and who must have been more friendly towards Johanna Catharina and their own colleague Pieter Rauws. In the declaration they state that at her request, three witnesses had appeared before them: an otherwise unknown woman called Anneke Schouten and two housemaids, Anneke Handrickse Wijlenbergh and Maria Janse Ouwerkerck who both had lived in the house of Anna Maria Sonnemans before and after her death. The witnesses had sworn before God Almighty that Jacob had managed to persuade his mother to make a new last will, a few hours after the earlier will (dividing her possessions into three equal parts?) had been lost accidentally "door enig toeval" (!?). Later, Anna Maria was said to have been greatly distressed when she found out (probably from Arend Jacob) about the actual contents of the new will she had signed, having been led to believe that it was similar to the one which had disappeared. It had always been her intention to leave equal parts to her three children, and she would never have wanted to limit the rights of Arend Jacob to use his part of the inheritance, according to the witnesses.
If true, a quite shocking scenario enters the mind, in which Jacob, realising that his mother Anna Maria was near death and that it was now or never, made her earlier will disappear and created a new one making himself the main beneficiary, using his (mentally) handicapped brother for his own ends, tricking his mother into signing it before three town officials who were personally selected and possibly bribed or pressurised by him, making it virtually impossible for his blind widowed sister, who now would be almost disinherited, to challenge it. It is not known what happened after depositing the spectacular testimony of the housemaids, but it seems that it did not have any effect at all. No record has been found that Johanna Catharina got more than what had been assigned to her in her mother's (fabricated?) will.
Although we do not know what may have moved Jacob ten Hage, if indeed the accusations were true, but it is tempting to guess. Apart from pure greed, there must also have been a certain amount of hatred against his sister Johanna Catharina and her husband Cornelis Rauws, and a cruel disregard for his own mother's real last will. These negative feelings may have risen already in June 1695, when Cornelis Rauws, aged eighteen, had become an orphan and had therefore come to live in Woudrichem under the care of Dirck Jansz. ten Hage, his guardian. Cornelis became Dirck and Anna Maria's stepson and a sort of elder brother to Johanna Catharina, Arend Jacob, and Jacob, who were then about eleven, ten, and seven years old respectively. Cornelis and Johanna Catharina, who fell in love and were married in 1704, would have had a dominant position in this family. The parents, Dirck ten Hage and Anna Maria Sonnemans may even have liked their new stepson more than their own two sons. Arend Jacob, who was probably handicapped, may not have noticed or minded, but Jacob may have felt rejected and betrayed by his parents and his elder sister. He may have been waiting for the opportunity to get his revenge. Jacob's rival Cornelis Rauws died at the age of 31 in 1709, his own father died in 1718, his sister Johanna Catharina lost her eyesight and his mother was near death in November 1734. Jacob saw his chance, and immediately used his handicapped brother Arend Jacob to further his own interests. There could now be no more serious opposition to Jacob's plans, except from Johanna Catharina's son Pieter Rauws, who in 1726 had become "schepen" of Woudrichem. Jacob's exceptional efforts to prevent any doubts about Anna Maria's will were probably taken in anticipation of Pieter's opposition. Pieter must indeed have tried his best, but Jacob had left no loose ends and he got away with it. Arend Jacob died early September 1740, and Jacob could now simply add all of his late brother's inheritance to his own possessions. Johanna Catharina received absolutely nothing. She died the following month. Jacob, on the other hand, was able to enjoy "his" wealth for thirty-two more years.
There seem to have been lasting tensions between the descendants of Johanna Catharina and those of Jacob. Although Pieter Rauws became "waarsman" of the Oude Ban (responsible for the finances
of this "polder"), and "president-burgemeester" of Woudrichem, he must have had many struggles with his adversaries and rivals. Even in the best of times Woudrichem was not a very lively place as
far as culture was concerned, but on 29-9-1746, all those who had been listening to violin music in the inn were reported to the council of church elders. Even Pieter was suspected of this serious offence
against "decency", but it could not be proved. In any case, Pieter was never appointed a member of the council, which was unusual for a town official of his standing. Pieter Rauws died in 1755, making
Jacob ten Hage's victory complete for the remaining seventeen years of his life.
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