Born 23 September 1890 in
Breitenau, Germany, died
1 February 1957 in Dresden.
German field marshal on the Eastern Front, whose capture at Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in early 1943 with his entire army became one of the turning points of World War II and contributed substantially to Germany's defeat.
After serving in World War I and as a staff officer early in World War II, Paulus became deputy chief of the German General Staff (1940) and helped draft plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union.
As commander of the 6th Army
from early 1942, he led the drive on Stalingrad. Surrounded in the city
by a Soviet counteroffensive beginning 19 November 1942 (Operation
'Uranus'), the 6th Army surrendered on 2 Februar 1943.
The Stalingrad disaster put an
end to Germany's offensive role in the Soviet Union. A tremendous blow
to morale, it also deprived Germany of about 300,000 irreplaceable
by Soviet forces, Paulus agitated against Adolf Hitler among German
prisoners of war and later testified at the International Military
Tribunal at Nurnberg. After his release in 1953, he settled in East